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World; conceptual definition; operational definition; conceptualization
B. Conceptualization; operational definition; conceptual definition; measurements in the real world
C. Conceptual definition; conceptualization; operational definition; measurements in the real world
D. Conceptualization; conceptual definition; operational definition; measurements in the real world
4. The technical term that’s used to describe what or who is studied in criminal justice research is
A. research fellows.
B. observation subjects.
C. units of analysis.
D. study partners.
5. _______ validity is based on the logical relationships among variables.
A. Criterion-related
B. Content
C. Internal
D. Construct
6. Observations that are made on the same set of people on two or more occasions are known as _______ studies.
A. cohort
B. longitudinal
C. trend
D. panel
7. The degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within the concept is known as content
A. measure.
B. criterion.
C. reliability.
D. validity.
8. A typology is produced by the intersection of two or more _______ to create a set of categories.
A. variables
B. theories
C. traits
D. concepts
9. _______ is concerned with whether research findings from one study can be reproduced in another study.
A. External validity
B. Replication
C. Duplication
D. Internal validity
10. Which of the following is the best method available for measuring certain crimes that are poorly represented by other techniques?
A. Uniform crime reports
B. Self-report surveys
C. Victim surveys
D. Arrest report surveys
11. In an experiment, the experimental stimulus that’s either present or absent is called the
A. unit of analysis.
B. independent variable.
C. methodology.
D. research mode.
12. A definition that spells out precisely how a concept will be measured is known as a(n) _______
A. organizational
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B. conceptual
C. operational
D. measurement
13. Variables whose attributes have only the characteristic of exhaustiveness and mutual exclusiveness are
_______ measures.
A. ordinal
B. internal
C. external
D. nominal
14. The first requirement in a causal relationship between two variables is that the two variables be
A. idiographic.
B. independent.
C. empirically correlated.
D. dependent.
15. In the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), Part 1 offenses comprise
A. only felony crimes.
B. all crimes reported to the police.
C. only crimes with an arrest.
D. crimes reported to and recorded by the police.

Exam: 501490RR – Modes of Observation
1. One of the chief goals of social science is
A. randomization.
B. organization.
C. generalization.
D. standardization.
2. In an experiment that uses _______, each element has an equal chance of being selected for study.
A. random selection
B. quota sampling
C. internal selection
D. stratified sampling
3. Published statistics and agency records are most commonly used in _______ studies.
A. field
B. remote
C. exploratory
D. victim
4. One of the greatest advantages of telephone surveys is the
A. validity.
B. reliability.
C. representation.
D. time.
5. The selection of an appropriate number of elements from homogeneous subsets of the population is
known as _______ sampling.
A. stratified
B. quota
C. snowball
D. convenience
6. One of the problems with analyzing agency records from different jurisdictions is _______ unsuitable for
particular research questions.
A. dependability
B. cost
C. relevance
D. units of analysis
7. Whether a measurement actually measures what it’s supposed to, and not something else, is known as
A. uniformity.
B. dependability.
C. reliability.
D. validity.
8. The process of selecting part of a population to study is known as
A. sampling.
B. partial testing.
C. unit of analysis.
D. subtesting.
9. A major advantage of in-person interview surveys is the
A. validity.
B. speed.
C. reliability.
D. response rate.
10. The Bureau of Justice Assistance has produced a handbook containing guidelines for conducting
structured field observations, which are known as _______ surveys.
A. environmental
B. field
C. neighborhood
D. structured
11. A survey response rate of at least _______ is adequate for analysis and reporting.
A. 75 percent
B. 10 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 25 percent
12. Which of the following is not one of the three modes of questionnaire administration discussed in your
A. In-person interview
B. Self-administered
C. Telephone interview
D. Internet interview
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13. An important component of problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention is the _______
A. economic
B. random
C. telephone
D. environmental
14. Self-report surveys on criminal activity focus on either the frequency or the ______ of offending.
A. prevalence
B. victims
C. origins
D. nature
15. The preferred method for selecting study elements is nearly always _______ sampling.
A. nonprobability
B. quota
C. purposive
D. probability

Exam: 501491RR – Application and Analysis
1. The analysis of the distribution of cases on only one variable at a time is known as _______ analysis.
A. inferential
B. univariate
C. central
D. frequency
2. Which of the following is a method of determining the specific function relating Y to X?
A. Regression analysis
B. Ratio analysis
C. Function analysis
D. Ingression analysis
3. The assumption that there’s no relationship between two variables in a population is known as
A. the false supposition.
B. a statistical aberration.
C. a statistical variant.
D. the null hypothesis.
4. The statistical significance of an observed relationship in a set of sample data is always expressed in
A. cardinal numbers.
B. absolutes.
C. probabilities.
D. levels of significance.
5. A generalization from samples to a larger population uses _______ statistics.
A. ordinal
B. bivariate
C. descriptive
D. inferential
6. The primary purpose of evaluation research is to evaluate the effects of
A. analysis.
B. detention.
C. research.
D. policies.
7. Which of the following is the first stage of evaluation research?
A. Formulate evaluation questions
B. Process evaluations
C. Identify policy goals
D. Define population elements
8. Which of the following is an example of a low-tech problem analysis?
A. A ratio
B. A graph
C. A pin map
D. A space map
9. The fundamental descriptive statistics used in criminal justice research are
A. elements.
B. medians.
C. data.
D. rates.
10. Which of the following is a pre-evaluation in which a researcher determines whether conditions
necessary for conducting an evaluation are present?
A. A theory assessment
B. A pre-research assessment
C. A program assessment
D. An evaluability assessment
11. The process of determining whether the intended result was produced by a study is the purpose of
A. evidence research.
B. problem analysis.
C. evaluation research.
D. theory analysis.
12. Problem analysis takes place in the policy _______ stage.
A. enforcement
B. appeal
C. making
D. review
13. Most applied research studies involve _______ stakeholders.
A. multiple
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B. no
C. single
D. autonomous
14. Program analysis differs from problem analysis with respect to the
A. time dimension.
B. program direction.
C. field dimension.
D. units of analysis.
15. Which of the following is inevitably involved in randomized experiments?
A. Reliability problems
B. Exceptions to randomization
C. Validity problems
D. Research problems