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6.A researcher completes a study examining the relationship between exposure to cold, smoking status and Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and finds both independent variables are significantly related to RP. In fact, she reports that 76% of the variation in the occurrence of RP can be explained by these two variables. You know this means: a. adding the second variable to the model produced significant results b. the model that includes both variables has an odd ratio that is approximately 0.76 c. the model that includes both variables has an R-square value of approximately 0.76 d. the residuals in this model are very low resultingin a significant finding for both variables
7. A researcher completes a study examining the relationship between education level and heart disease and developes the following regression model results. What proportion of the variance in the risk of heart disease is explained by the educational level?a. unable to determine b. 54.2% c.29.4%
8.A researcher examines the medical records of 78 critically ill patients with myxedema coma. He wishes to determine if they respond faster to the administration of vasopressor A or vasopressor B. They measure outcome as the average number of minutes to stable blood pressure. What would be an appropriate test to apply in this scenario? a. T-test for independent sample b. ANOVA c. chi-square d. t-test for independent variable
9. A researcher should use what regression technique to examine the relationship between death before the age of 5 and the presence of phenylketonuria, low birth weight and prematurity?a standard error of the estimate b. multiple regression c. linear regression d. logistic regression
10.A study examining if administering a medication A and participating in regular aerobic exercise is associated with improvements in patient anxiety post myocardial infarction. In the final regression model the R square value is 0.27. You know this means: a exercise significantly improves anxiety seen post myocardial infraction 27% of the time b. exercise and administering medication A decreases anxiety seen post myocardial infraction by 27% c. exercise and administering medication A improves anxiety seen post myocardial infraction d. exercise and administering medication A explain 27% of the variance seen in anxiety post myocardial infraction
11.A study is conducted with the age of a person and the likelihood to get STDs. Your alpha is 0.05 and the p value for chi squared is 0.02. You can conclude: a. there is no association between age and likelihood b.older people don’t get STDsc. there is no association d. you can’t conclude anything
12. Correlation coefficients are used to?a.look for a difference between multiple variables b. find a relationship between multiple groups c. find a relationship between variables in one sample d. look for a difference among multiple samples
13. a study examining gulf war syndrome reports a significant odds ratio of 4.5 associated with exposure to depleted uranium in returning veterans you know this means: a.there is a significant association between being a veteran and being exposed to depleted uranium b. veterans who were not exposed to depleted uranium are 95% more likley to be healthy compared to those who were exposed c. veterans who were exposedto depleted uranium are more likely to have gulf war syndrome than those who were not d. the chance of getting sick after an exposure to depleted uranium is 4.5%
14.If researchers add independent variables to a regression model which are significant value of the R- sguare will? a not change b. unable to determine c. decrease d. increase
15. If the risk ratio is 0.63 this means that a. the exposure may have a protective effect b. there is no relationship c. the exposure was a risk factor d. 63% of people in the population will be exposed and not get the disease
16 The only study to give you incidence and data is: a. case control b. cohort c. nominal d. cross sectional
17.The relationship between food intake and obesity has a significant correlation of +0.9. If a person increases their food intake you would expect their obesity rates to: ***** ***** b. unable to determine c. remain the same d. increase
18. There are 100 workers in a plant during a chemical spill and 68 of the 70 who are exposed to the toxic chemicals develop significant respiratory distress. There are 30 unexposed workers and 27 of them do not develop respiratory distress. What is the relative risk of developing respiratory distress in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group of workers? a 97.1 b. 97.1% c. 9,71% d. cannot be determined with the given information
19. Twenty people attend a banquet and eighteen eat the crab dip while ten eat the spinach. Six of those who ate the crab got sick and five of those who ate the spinach got sick. Use attack rates to determine what was the most likely source of the illness. a. too much alcohol b. crab c. spinach d. eating the spinach and the crab
20. What test is used to fond a relationship or difference in an outcome or dependent variable measured at the nominal or ordinal level? a.t-test b. ANOVA c. repeat measures ANOVA d. chi-square
21, when is the Chi- square test not ideal? ato compare independent samples of ratio or interval level data b. to compare independent samples or ordinal or nominal level c. when all cells within 2×2 tables have an observed value greater than or equal to 10 d. A and B
22. When a researcher was studying the relationship between years of education and the score achieved on a health promotion screen the following table was generated. For every additional year of education what change would you expect to see in the health promotion screen score?Intercept – coefficients is 51.277, standard error is 0.52, t-Stat is 98.552 and p-value is 0.0000Years of Education – coefficients is 6.537, standard error is 0.662, t-Stat is 9.87 and p-value is 0.0000
a. 6.5 point increase b. 0,66 point decrease c. 0.53point increase d. 51 point increase
3. A researcher completes a study examining the relationship between education level and risk of heart disease and develops the following regression model results. What proportion of the variance in the risk of heart disease is explained by educational level?Model Summary – Model 1 – R is .736 to the 3rd power, R square is .542, adjusted R square is .532 and Std error of the estimate is 2760.003
24.When studying the relationship between ankle-brachial blood pressure index and peripheral vascular disease the researchers have a significant R square. They then add a second independent variable of a pain scale. The R square in the model that includes both independent variables is significant but the R square change is not. You know this means: a because the model is significant both variables should be included b. having both variables in the model explain significantly more variation in peripheral vascular disease c. the second variable added may not be significant and should be examined further d. the R- square change only matters with the first variable
25. When there is a linear relationship between two variables you will see:a. a negative sloping trend line on a scatterplot b.
a scatterplot with a lot of random dispersion c. an either positive or negative slopping trend line on a scatterplot d. a positively slopping trend line on a scatter polt
26. Which study collects the data about exposure and outcome at the same time? a. incidence b. case-control c. cross-sectional d. cohort
27. You examine the number of new cases of lung cancer between the smokers of menthol cigaretts, full flavor cigaretts, and light flavor cigarettes. The most appropriate test to use would be the; a. chi-square b. student t-test c. ANOVA d. pearsons correlation coefficient