1. An element that speeds up chemical reactions is called a/an
A. enzyme. C. substrate.
B. calorie. D. solvent.
2. A substance that’s attracted to water molecules is called
A. hydrophobic. C. hydrophilic.
B. cohesive. D. adhesive.
3. Short, hairlike projections called _______ enable the motion
of some eukaryotic cells.
A. cilia C. centrioles
B. actinites D. microtubules
4. Biology is the study of
A. animals. C. plants.
B. the physical world. D. life.
5. Plants and algae are remarkable in that they can make all the organic compounds they
need from the end product of the Calvin cycle, which is
A. carbon dioxide. C. G3P molecules.
B. NADH+. D. RuBP carboxylase.
6. Which one of the following events occurs during Calvin cycle reactions?
A. Chlorophyll energizes electrons.
B. Carbohydrates are produced.
C. ATP is produced.
D. An enzyme helper becomes NADPH.
7. The monomers of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are known as
A. nucleotides. C. nuclei.
B. proteins. D. polypeptides.
8. What happens during glycolysis?
A. Hydrogen ions combine to form water.
B. Oxidation takes place in the matrix of mitochondria.
C. The oxidation of pyruvate forms NADH and CO2.
D. Glucose breaks down into two molecules of pyruvate.
9. The process by which a biologist uses creative thought to find a pattern among isolated
facts is called
A. inductive reasoning. C. simple reasoning.
B. proving a theory. D. proving a hypothesis.
10. In a eukaryotic cell, a network of protein filaments called _______ help maintain the
shape of the cell.
A. organelles C. ribosomes
B. the cytoskeleton D. the nucleolus
11. Glycerol is a subunit molecule of a
A. carbohydrate. C. protein.
B. lipid. D. nucleic acid.
12. In the electron transport chain, the main purpose of the _______ we breathe is to
keep electrons moving along from the first to the last chemical carrier.
A. carbon dioxide C. atoms
B. nitrogen D. oxygen20: Select the one best answer to each question13. The tiny particles that comprise an element are called
A. ions. C. atoms.
B. protons. D. nuclei.
14. In cells, a form of active transport is
A. osmosis. C. simple diffusion.
B. a sodium-potassium pump. D. facilitated diffusion.
15. In the leaves of flowering plants, where does the process of photosynthesis occur?
A. In chloroplasts C. In glucose
B. In stomata D. Between chlorophylls
16. According to the octet rule, an atom with two electron shells is most stable when it
A. protons. C. electrons.
B. isotopes. D. neutrons.
17. The least usable form of energy is
A. a calorie. C. food.
B. ATP. D. heat.
18. The energy used by living organisms on Earth comes from
A. the sun. C. the oceans.
B. fossil fuels. D. volcanoes.
19. A carbon molecule that has a different arrangement of atoms is known as a/an
A. monomer. C. isomer.
B. peptide. D. nucleotide.
20. Single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus are called
A. prokaryotes. C. Golgi bodies.
B. organelles. D. eukaryotes.
1. Which one of the following statements would most clearly
refer to a person’s genotype?
A. Susan has blue eyes.
B. Bill is recessive for height and dominant for hair color.
C. Karen has broad shoulders, long legs, and green eyes.
D. Harold inherited high cheekbones.
2. In one kind of abnormal chromosome inheritance called
Down syndrome, a child has three copies of
A. chromosome X.
B. chromosome 23.
C. chromosome Y.
D. chromosome 21.
3. The process of reproductive cloning begins by
A. genetically modifying an embryo.
B. genetically modifying a stem cell.
C. placing an adult nucleus in a cell without a nucleus.
D. isolating cells to learn more about how they specialize.
4. In humans, blood type inheritance is an example of
A. complete dominance.
C. incomplete dominance.
5. During division in cellular reproduction, the DNA and cytoplasm of the parent cell is
distributed to two
C. daughter cells.
D. simplified cells.
6. Suppose you’re looking through a microscope and you see an exchange of chromosome
segments between chromosome pair 7 and chromosome pair 15. This condition
is an example of
7. A DNA molecule has a unique design that resembles a spiral staircase. Scientists call
this design a
A. spiral purine.
B. double helix.
C. double nucleotide.
D. spiral structure.
8. During meiosis, the “shuffling” exchange of genetic material is called
C. tetrad formation.
D. allele distribution.
9. The scientific field devoted to developing new drugs for treating genetic disorders is
C. genetic profiling.
10. Animal cells actively replicate their genetic material during
B. the mitotic stage.
11. Proteins are synthesized in
A. messenger RNA.
B. the cell nucleus.
C. transfer RNA.
12. What cell parts have been compared to the protective caps on the ends of shoe laces?
13. The human chromosomes that are responsible for the gender of a child are the
C. X and Y chromosomes.
14. A visual display of the chromosomes of a person, arranged by size, shape, and
patterns of banding is called
A. a karyotype.
B. a genetic profile.
C. a gene map.
15. In the development of a cancer cell, the formation of new blood vessels is called
16. Transgenic bacteria can be used to produce
17. Let T mean tall and t mean short. If Clara’s mother is Tt and her father is Tt, what is
the chance that she’ll be tall?
A. 1 in 4
B. 2 in 4
C. 3 in 4
18. Which statement about Chargaff’s rules is correct?
A. In each species, the amount of adenine equals the amount of guanine.
B. In each species, the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine.
C. In each species, the amount of adenine equals the amount of cytosine.
D. The amount of adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine is the same in
19. Once the _______ checkpoint is passed in the cell cycles, the cell is committed
20. A change in a single DNA nucleotide is called a
A. point mutation.
1. Scientists believe that modern humans appeared during the
A. Pleistocene C. Miocene
B. Pliocene D. Paleocene
2. In a population of horses, an extreme phenotype is favored
and the distribution of genes in that population shifts toward
that phenotype. This process is called _______ selection
A. random C. disruptive
B. stabilizing D. directional
3. Which of these creatures are annelids?
A. Gastropods C. Planarians
B. Earthworms D. Sponges
4. Which of the following is a type of archaea?
A. Algae C. Halophiles
B. Mold D. Spirilum
5. What is the process by which a species becomes better suited to its environment?
A. Variation C. Selection
B. Adaptation D. Adjustment
6. Of the four plant groups, which one probably evolved first?
A. Angiosperms C. Mosses
B. Ferns D. Gymnosperms
7. Which one of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
A. Hybrid sterility C. Incompatible anatomy
B. Habitat isolation D. Gamete isolation
8. Most fungi live by decomposing the remains of plants, animals, and microbes found in
soil. That is why most fungi are called
A. mushrooms. C. lichens.
B. saprotrophs. D. mycelium.
9. Scientists who argue that modern humans evolved from a single population believe
that humans came from the continent of
A. Europe. C. Asia.
B. Africa. D. South America.
10. Any trace of a dead organism, such as an imprint in a rock, is called a
A. homologous structure. C. strata.
B. transitional form. D. fossil.
11. Most scientists now believe that birds evolved directly from bipedal
A. amphibians. C. dinosaurs.
B. lizards. D. marsupials.
12. The similarity of the characteristics of sheep and reindeer is due to their having a
common ancestor. This sort of phenomenon is called
A. homology. C. taxonomy.
B. convergent evolution. D. parallel evolution.
13. What do biologists call the process when allele frequencies in a population of a species
change over time due to chance?
A. Gene flow C. Genetic drift
B. Nonrandom mating D. Bottleneck effect
14. In vascular plants, which of these parts conducts water and minerals upward from
A. Xylem C. Phloem
B. Lignin D. Fronds
15. Amoebas move by using extensions of their cytoplasm called
A. cilia. C. vacuoles.
B. pseudopods. D. sporozoa.
16. The structure of the forelimb of a bird is similar in structure to that of the forelimb of
a mammal, suggesting that both descended from a common ancestor. This similarity is
an example of _______ evidence that supports the theory of evolution.
A. biochemical C. anatomical
B. vestigial D. biogeographical
17. The varieties of beak structures among Galapagos finches is a good example of
A. adaptive radiation. C. random radiation.
B. allopathic speciation. D. sympatric evolution.
18. Which one of these creatures is an echinoderm?
A. Grasshopper C. Crab
B. Spider D. Sea star
19. In biology, the members of a single species occupying the same area and reproducing
with one another is called a
A. herd. C. group.
B. gene pool. D. population.
20. A virus that reproduces in a bacterium is called a
A. lysogene. C. phage.
B. retrovirus. D. viroid.