Multiple Choice Answers

Question 1
All EXCEPT which of the following developments occurred at the Yalta conference held in 1945?
A. The Allies agreed to a process of free elections in the liberated nations of Europe.
B. Roosevelt reassured Stalin that the Soviet Union’s legitimate territorial and security concerns would be met.
C. The establishment of the United Nations was agreed to by the Allies.
D. The leaders of the three Allied nations were deeply divided over the future of Japan.

Question 2
The European Recovery Program was better known as the:
A. Five Point Program.
B. Stillman Plan.
C. Acheson Plan.
D. Marshall Plan.

Question 3
In reviewing the origins of the Cold War, the text:
A. remarked on the unusual nature of intense competition between two societies so heavily influenced by Western civilization.
B. supports the view of many revisionist historians that United States policies drove Stalin to adopt a hostile view of the West.
C. states that both nations were working within a framework conditioned by the past, from their different historical perspective and their irreconcilable political ambitions.
D. proposes the Cold War actually originated in East Asia.

Question 4
Factors weakening Chiang Kai-shek during the Civil War included:
A. middle class indifference toward his regime because of its refusal to provide them with lucrative government jobs.
B. peasant enthusiasm to Mao’s promises to give land to the peasants.
C. the refusal of the United States to give even limited military support to the Nationalist armies.
D. the fact that 85,000 former Japanese occupation troops were fighting in his army and elite Japanese units formed his bodyguard.

Question 5
United States foreign policy during the Korean War period:
A. was unable to get formal United Nations support for South Korea when invaded in June 1950.
B. reluctantly supported the modified and limited return of 30,000 Japanese troops to the Korean peninsula to help rebuff North Korean forces.
C. became more determined to block Western contact with the Chinese government.
D. provided support for the invasion of the Chinese mainland by Nationalist forces from Taiwan.

Question 6
“Peaceful coexistence”:
A. was a term first coined by Joseph Stalin in the 1940s.
B. was first used by Sun Yat sen in 1921.
C. was treated with suspicion by United States leaders, especially after the Soviet crushing of the unrest in Hungary in 1956.
D. delayed the development of cultural exchanges of theatrical and other groups.

Question 7
In the Cuban Missile Crisis:
A. the Soviet Union decided to send nuclear weapons to Cuba in 1962.
B. Turkey threatened to have the United States destroy Cuba if the Soviets attacked Turkey.
C. the United States president threatened to shoot down any Soviet planes bringing nuclear weapons to Cuba and announced a total “air blockade.”
D. President Johnson sent American troops to Cuba.

Question 8
The Sino Soviet dispute:
A. was rooted in a struggle between the Chinese and the Soviets for control of Tibet.
B. was aggravated by the lack of Soviet support for Chinese efforts to reclaim Taiwan.
C. bore no relationship to the level of Soviet economic assistance to China.
D. saw Mao describe China as the international leader of industrialized nations.

Question 9
The term “Evil Empire” referred to the:
A. Soviet Union.
B. Chinese government.
C. United States in the rhetoric of Iran’s revolutionary Islamic regime.
D. Sandinista regime in Nicaragua.

Question 10
Under Ronald Reagan, the United States was able to help sustain a Vietnam like war that long embroiled Soviet forces in:
A. Uzbekistan.
B. Turkmenistan.
C. Kazakhstan.
D. Afghanistan.

Question 11
Joseph Stalin:
A. inaugurated a new, benevolent stage of governmental policy with his Stalingrad speech in January, 1946.
B. continued his reliance on the terror apparatus, including the holding of about 9,000,000 Soviet citizens in Siberian concentration camps.
C. named his protégé, Andrei Zhdanov, as his successor.
D. denounced Lenin at the Thirtieth Party Congress.

Question 12
Nikita Khrushchev:
A. was determined to follow in Stalin’s path, avoiding even the appearance of innovation.
B. was known as “old stone butt” by Western leaders.
C. was mocked as “Cottonman” by many Russians.
D. permitted the publication of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.

Question 13
Which of the following statements is NOT true of the Brezhnev years in the Soviet Union?
A. Khrushchev was forced into retirement.
B. As a result of détente, there was a freer and more relaxed domestic atmosphere.
C. The economic policies continued to de-emphasize consumer goods production.
D. Agricultural problems continued to cause many difficulties.

Question 14
The ethnic tensions that resulted as an unanticipated by product of glasnost were caused by:
A. the encouragement of these feelings from the gulag.
B. a combination of the statement of long suppressed feelings as a result of new freedoms, the inability of the army to control the resulting violence.
C. the desire on the part of many ethnic minorities to retain the dominance of Communism throughout the Soviet Union.
D. the relaxation of Gorbachev’s iron grip on the Soviet system.

Question 15
For the Chinese Communist Party, culture was:
A. seen as a unique resource which should be preserved and not changed.
B. valuable and valid for its own sake.
C. seen as an important instrument for indoctrination.
D. not to be used in the same way the Soviets had used it.

Question 16
A leading Soviet writer of the 1950s and winner of the Nobel Prize was :
A. Vaclav Havel.
B. Gennady Zhuganov.
C. Leo Tolstoy.
D. Boris Pasternak.

Question 17
All of the following are correct about Mao’s Red Guards EXCEPT:
A. in many instances, they brutalized their victims with impunity.
B. they were composed of discontented Chinese youth.
C. they received re-enforcements from Taiwan.
D. contained disgruntled party members.

Question 18
The “fifth modernization” referred to in post Mao China was:
A. land reform.
B. national defense.
C. democracy.
D. industry.

Question 19
Chinese “communes” were:
A. Communist Party committee cadres.
B. urban districts established by Mao Zedong.
C. the modern equivalent of the traditional cottage industries in pre modern China.
D. agricultural communities containing more than thirty thousand people.

Question 20
All of the following are true about events in Poland from 1980 to 1991 EXCEPT:
A. mass public demonstrations caused significant changes in government policy.
B. huge rises in food prices helped to give rise to Solidarity.
C. by the end of 1990, the nation had freely elected a new president.
D. Soviet troops occupied the country in December 1990.