The policies of Otto von Bismarck before 1871:
A. were based on the practice of Idealpolitik.
B. ignored domestic opposition and concentrated on foreign affairs.
C. used warfare as an instrument of policy, regardless of its consequences.
D. used parliament to endorse the policy of increased taxes, and used the new revenues collected to reorganize the Prussian military.
The steam engine was developed by:
A. Edmund Cartwright.
B. James Hargreaves.
C. Henry Cort.
D. James Watt.
Which of the following statements is a FALSE observation about the development of the Industrial Revolution?
A. The use of machinery in factories helped to stimulate urban growth.
B. The highly productive nature of industrial manufacturing created continuous opportunities for reinvestment and increased production.
C. Price reductions produced increased markets, thus continuing the traditional, self sustaining nature of the European economy as it had functioned since the early 1600s.
D. Rural workers found new employment opportunities in railroad construction.
Continental European industrialization:
A. started a full generation before it did in England.
B. began in Belgium, France, and the German states.
C. didn’t gain momentum until the 1890s in France.
D. was centered in northwestern Piedmont until 1815.
Industrial development in the United States before 1870:
A. made no real impression on either the society or the economy.
B. included an efficient transportation network.
C. had Asian immigrants making up over half of the factory labor until the 1850s.
D. depended upon slave labor in the factories.
The territory annexed by Austria in 1908, which enraged Serbia, was:
B. Montenegro and Wallachia.
D. Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The population in Europe during the nineteenth century:
A. remained steady until the 1830s, and then began to decrease steadily.
B. was notable for rapid overall growth and a far more rapid increase in city populations.
C. was dramatically reduced when the Great Famine killed thirty five percent of the Russian, Irish, and Prussian populations.
D. decreased as peasants, reassured by falling death rates, reduced the rural birth rate by over sixty percent due to their adoption of birth control.
The new, industrial middle class was:
A. actually not new at all, but was a propaganda term created by Napoleon III.
B. the term used to describe the European proletariat after 1810.
C. composed of people who were often the children of industrial workers or rural gentry.
D. composed of increasingly wealthy individuals who wanted political status and power.
Britain’s Factory Act of 1833:
A. reduced the number of women working in factories.
B. reduced the number of children working in factories.
C. established an eight hour work day for all workers.
D. placed a high tariff on imports in order to increase the profits of industrialists.
All of the following are correct about nineteenth century Liberalism EXCEPT:
A. having economic and political components.
B. supporting the idea of civil rights.
C. wanting to limit governmental power.
D. opposing limiting governmental power.
A. was a potential threat to the existing political order
B. had major support only in western, Atlantic coast Europe until the late 1860s.
C. was firmly opposed by Bismarck and Cavour.
D. won speedy acceptance across Europe because every government was helped by it.
The Congress of Vienna in 1815:
A. was attended by representatives of France, Britain, Italy and the United States.
B. operated in accord with the principles of liberalism.
C. agreed to meet periodically to take steps to maintain Europe’s peace and stability.
D. created the Concert of Europe, an interchange of musicians who presented a gala series of performances, with concerts given in a different capital each year.
The most multinational state in Europe in the nineteenth century, and thus the one most threatened by the new ideology of nationalism, was:
Prussia’s victory over Austria in 1866 allowed the Italians to take over __________ and the withdrawal of French troops during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 allowed the Italians to take over __________.
A. Naples; Florence
B. Venetia; Rome
C. Rome; Milan
D. Venice; Syracuse
The Eastern European state that gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830 was:
The ability to make yarn at a much faster pace:
A. was achieved by the development of George Stephenson’s Rocket.
B. was retarded by adoption of the Lysenko Doctrine in 1808.
C. became necessary after the development of the flying shuttle.
D. depended upon the inventions of Charles Seurat.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the Franco Prussian War of 1870?
A. Louis Napoleon made himself Emperor of the Third Republic.
B. German unification was achieved.
C. The French suffered a military and political humiliation.
D. The south German states came under Prussian domination.
The Ausgleich of 1867 was all of the following EXCEPT it:
A. created the dual monarchy of Austria Hungary.
B. was the result, in part, of heavy pressure from Hungarian nationalists, who gained strength.
C. enabled the German Austrians and Hungarian Magyars to dominate the dual state.
D. unified Austria with the Bismarck’s emerging German Empire.
All of the following are correct about Russia in the nineteenth and early twentieth century EXCEPT:
A. Alexander II, a reformer, was assassinated.
B. Alexander III and Nicholas II continued Alexander II’s reforms.
C. Russia lost a war to Japan.
D. Russia was industrializing, particularly after 1890.
__________ was forced to reduce its industrial production by a more powerful competitor.