Multiple Choice Answers

1. As the ocean floor spreads, other parts plunge into the mantle. This process is called
A. subduction.
B. plate tectonics.
C. continental drift.
D. paradigm shift.

2. Which one of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource?
A. Coal
B. Wood
C. Topsoil
D. Water

3. The speed of P-waves and S-waves can help seismologists to determine the
A. size of an earthquake.
B. energy of an earthquake.
C. distance to the epicenter of an earthquake.
D. location of an earthquake.

4. Which one of the following types of volcanoes would be the most explosive?
A. Volcanoes that contain small amounts of water
B. Volcanoes that have thin magma
C. Volcanoes that contain small amounts of carbon dioxide
D. Volcanoes that have large amounts of silica

5. Mountains that formed when two continents collided are the
A. Himalayas.
B. Alps.
C. Appalachian Mountains.
D. Teton Mountains.

6. The place on Earth’s surface directly above the point where movement first occurs in an earthquake is called the
A. focus.
B. stress point.
C. deformation.
D. epicenter.

7. The area where two neighboring tectonic plates move away from one another is called an area’s _______ boundary.
A. divergent
B. convergent
C. transform
D. paradigm

8. Where do most volcanoes form?
A. Along plate boundaries
B. In the center of major continents
C. Anywhere in the ocean floor
D. In the North American continent

9. Fossil fuels are made from
A. minerals.
B. plants and animals.
C. inorganic matter.
D. water and gases.

10. Because of the high temperatures and extreme pressure, the rocks in the asthenosphere are
A. soft and flowing.
B. dense and solid.
C. brittle and thick.
D. molten and liquidy.

11. The Richter scale measures
A. magnitude.
B. intensity.
C. distance.
D. location.

12. Suppose the highest point in a landscape is 2,000 meters above sea level. The lowest point in the same landscape is 500 meters. The relief of this landscape is _______ meters.
A. 400
B. 1,500
C. 2,500
D. 10,000

13. A mineral commonly used for melting ice on slippery winter surfaces is
A. feldspar.
B. hematite.
C. halite.
D. garnet.

14. What type of volcano has alternate layers of ash and lava?
A. Shield
B. Cinder cone
C. Composite
D. Caldera

15. Which one of the following pieces of evidence did Wegener use to support his theory of continental drift?
A. The mid-ocean ridge is sinking into the ocean trenches.
B. A similar fossil was found in Africa, South America, Australia, India, and Antarctica.
C. The rock in the ocean floor is magnetized in the same direction.
D. The age of the rocks in the sea floor is all the same.

16. Green plants produce oxygen and food through a process called
A. burning.
B. decay.
C. respiration.
D. photosynthesis.

17. The landform with the highest elevation is the
A. valley.
B. plateau.
C. plain.
D. mountain.

18. The largest layer of Earth is the
A. crust.
B. mantle.
C. outer core.
D. inner core.

19. How have scientists determined that the outer core of Earth is liquid?
A. P-waves speed up in the outer core.
B. P-waves don’t travel through the outer core.
C. S-waves come to a complete stop in the outer core.
D. S-waves slow down and then speed up in the outer core.

20. The most common way for mountains to form is when
A. two plates come together.
B. folding occurs during plate collisions.
C. two continents collide.
D. volcanoes erupt.