1. Which one of the following statements is correct?
A. Stalagmites are narrower than stalactites.
B. Stalagmites form on the ceiling of a cavern.
C. Stalagmites are formed from water containing salt.
D. Stalagmites are cone-shaped deposits.
2. Loess is made up mainly of
A. fine pebbles.
B. coarse pebbles.
C. windblown sand.
D. fine silt particles.
3. Where is the water table located?
A. At the top of the zone of saturation
B. Under the zone of saturation
C. In the layer of bedrock
D. Below the layer of bedrock
4. What landform would be created when a river travels around a bend?
D. Alluvial fan
5. Which one of the following is a source of chemical weathering?
A. The abrasion of running water
B. Water freezing in the cracks of exposed rocks
C. The effects of acid from decaying animals
D. The growth of mosses in the cracks of rocks
6. Carbonic acid forms when carbon dioxide is absorbed into water. The action of carbonic acid on _______ may produce sinkholes, caverns, and formations like stalagmites.
7. In referring to Earth’s systems, which one of the following statements is accurate for an open system?
A. The human influence has little effect on an open system.
B. An open system exchanges energy with its surroundings.
C. An open system is unchanging.
D. An open system is unaffected by outside objects.
8. What is the process by which water dissolves certain minerals in the soil and carries them away?
9. The most important measure of the size of a river is the
A. number of its tributaries.
B. width of its mouth.
C. volume of its discharge.
D. size of its watershed.
10. The soil with the greatest porosity would have
A. round particles of different sizes.
B. round particles of the same size.
C. angled particles of different sizes.
D. angled particles of the same size.
11. Which one of the following types of rock would weather the fastest?
A. Small pieces of clay
B. Large blocks of clay
C. Small pieces of granite
D. Large blocks of granite
12. The movement of sediment by the forces of nature is called
13. The beginning of a river is usually located
A. near the base of a divide.
B. at the bottom of its watershed.
C. near the mouth of the river.
D. high in the mountains.
14. What occurs in wind erosion?
A. Wet soil is transported away.
B. Dry soil is transported away.
C. Small rocks are.
D. Large rocks are left behind.
15. The finest particles of rock in a river are found near its
16. The type of soil with the smallest particles would be composed of
17. Calcium is carried in water by a process known as
18. In general, what causes desert pavement?
A. Wind erosion
B. Water erosion
C. Mechanical weathering
D. Chemical weathering
19. Which one of the following factors would have the least effect on the ability of a river to erode materials?
A. Slope of the river
B. Discharge of the river
C. Size of the river’s headwaters
D. Shape of the riverbed
20. Which layer in a soil profile contains the most organic matter?