Multiple Choice Answers

1. The place where the ocean floor suddenly plunges downward is called the
A. continental shelf.
B. continental slope.
C. abyssal plain.
D. abyssal hill.

2. Which one of the following statements is accurate regarding glaciers and erosion?
A. Striations caused by moving glaciers help determine the age of a rock.
B. Glaciers erode the base of mountains into basins called cirques.
C. Moving valley glaciers create V-shaped valleys.
D. Glaciers can carry both small particles and large boulders.

3. The process that uses a half-life in its computation is
A. evolution.
B. adaptation.
C. intrusion.
D. radioactive dating.

4. Which one of the following times would be the longest?
A. Jurassic period
B. Carboniferous period
C. Paleozoic era
D. Mesozoic era

5. A _______ moraine forms when a glacier deposits till at its sides.
A. lateral
B. ground
C. end
D. terminal

6. The force that causes the ocean tides is
A. gravity.
B. the Coriolis effect.
C. tsunamis.
D. a swell.

7. Scientists believe that humans arrived on Earth during the _______ Period.
A. Quaternary
B. Tertiary
C. Cretaceous
D. Triassic

8. What must occur for a fossil to form?
A. The organism must fall into igneous rock.
B. The organism must be buried in sediment soon after it dies.
C. The organism must go through a process of petrification.
D. The climate where the organism dies must not be too cool.

9. According to the theory of evolution, an organism increases its chance of survival through a process known as
A. intrusion.
B. adaptation.
C. unconformity.
D. superposition.

10. In which one of the following regions would you expect to find the largest amounts of dissolved oxygen in the ocean water?
A. Near the equator
B. In temperate zones
C. In polar regions
D. In the deep ocean floor

11. Which one of the following landforms would be created by outwash?
A. Moraines
B. Eskers
C. Drumlins
D. Erratics

12. Which one of the following statements suggests relative age?
A. The top layer of sedimentary rock isn’t as old as the layers beneath it.
B. Earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago.
C. The Phanerozoic era lasted about 540 million years.
D. Some layers of shale are 265 million years old.

13. When sediments fall out of a glacier, they create a deposit called
A. kettle.
B. kames.
C. eskers.
D. till.

14. What problem does an unconformity present?
A. It weakens the crust so earthquakes are more prevalent.
B. It allows magma to escape to the surface of Earth.
C. It leaves a gap in the geological record.
D. It doesn’t contain any fossils for geologists to study.

15. The half-life of an element is important for determining the _______ of a rock.
A. decomposition rate
B. relative age
C. absolute age
D. mineral makeup

16. Which one of the following time references best fits the concept of geologic time?
A. A dozen years
B. A hundred years
C. A thousand years
D. A million or more years

17. Of the following mineral elements, which one is dissolved in greatest abundance in the world’s oceans?
A. Magnesium
B. Potassium
C. Calcium
D. Sodium

18. Which one of the following situations would you expect to create the highest waves in the ocean?
A. A 50-kilometer-per-hour wind blowing for 5 hours across a 100-kilometer-wide area of ocean
B. A 50-kilometer-per-hour wind blowing for 10 hours across a 1000-kilometer-wide area of ocean
C. A 100-kilometer-per-hour wind blowing for 5 hours across a 100-kilometer-wide area of ocean
D. A 100-kilometer-per-hour wind blowing for 10 hours across a 1000-kilometer-wide area of ocean

19. Alpine glaciers can be found on which one of the following landforms?
A. Flat plains
B. Mountain valleys
C. Mountain bases
D. Lowland hills

20. What drives currents deep in the ocean?
A. Wind
B. Increased temperatures
C. Differences in water density
D. Decreased salinity