Multiple Choice Answers

Plessy v. Ferguson held that:
A. our Constitution must be color blind.
B. discrimination was outside the realm of the Court.
C. it is up to legislation to eradicate prejudice.
D. the economic cost of segregation would be staggering.
According to the text, the American Dream:
A. was fundamental in abolishing slavery.
B. is set forth in the U.S. Constitution.
C. is the belief that through hard work anyone can succeed in the United States.
D. was determined in the Bakke case.
Discrimination is:
A. an attitude.
B. permitted by law.
C. a behavior.
D. addressed in the original Bill of Rights.
The “separate but equal” doctrine was established by:
A. the Third Amendment.
B. Jim Crow laws.
C. the Eleventh Amendment.
D. None of the above
Prejudice is:
A. an attitude.
B. unlawful.
C. a behavior.
D. addressed in the original Bill of Rights.
The first state to withdraw from the Union was:
A. Mississippi.
B. South Carolina.
C. Alabama.
D. Virginia.
A pressing issue that led to the Civil War was:

A. state banks and money versus national banks and currency.
B. freedom versus slavery in the territories.
C. federal aid versus state aid for improving highways and railways.
D. All of the above
State constitutions:
A. set forth some specific ideals of that particular state.
B. establish the organization of a state’s governing bodies.
C. are subordinate to the U.S. Constitution on some issues.
D. All of the above
The U.S. Supreme Court ruling in __________ legally ended the years of Jim Crow laws.
A. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka I (1954)
B. Swain v. Alabama (1965)
C. Harr v. Hess (1949)
D. Ex parte Hull (1941)
Sentencing guidelines have reduced:
A. racial disparity.
B. ethnic disparity.
C. both racial and ethnic disparity.
D. neither racial nor ethnic disparity.
The Great Debate centered on:
A. whether states could lawfully withdraw from the Union.
B. whether slavery should be abolished.
C. who would make the best president.
D. All of the above
A situation in which racial minorities are treated more harshly at some points and in some places in the criminal justice system, but no differently than whites at other points and in other places, best describes __________ discrimination.
A. pure
B. systematic
C. contextual
D. discretionary

The landmark case in the issue of affirmative action is:
A. United Steelworkers of America v. Weber (1979).
B. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978).
C. United States v. Paradise (1987).
D. Fullilove v. Klutznick (1980).
The case of Dred Scott v. Sandford held that:
A. blacks had equal rights with whites.
B. slavery was unconstitutional.
C. freed slaves did not have the right to remain free in territory where slavery was still legal.
D. states could determine whether ex-slaves could be citizens.
Racial discrimination is outlawed by:
A. the Civil Rights Act.
B. the Fair Housing Act.
C. the Voting Rights Act.
D. All of the above
The Fourteenth Amendment overruled the __________ decision.
A. Dred Scott
B. Gregg
C. Slaughterhouse
D. Plessy
The Constitution was originally drafted to limit the power of:
A. the federal government.
B. state governments.
C. local governments.
D. All of the above
The Court acknowledged that virtual exclusion of African Americans from juries constituted an equal protection violation in:

A. Adarand v. Pena.
B. Norris v. Alabama.
C. Swain v. Alabama.
D. Batson v. Kentucky.
The Fourteenth Amendment, among other things, provided that:
A. the fundamental provisions of the Bill of Rights would apply to all levels of government.
B. all men are created equal.
C. slavery is morally wrong.
D. attitudes can be altered.
Affirmative action programs are sometimes referred to as:
A. ethnic-preference programs.
B. gender-preference programs.
C. Both a and b
D. Neither a nor b

Deadly force can be used only when:
A. the offense involved is a Class I felony.
B. the reason is self-defense or protecting the lives of others.
C. authorized by a supervisor.
D. All of the above
Roadblocks have been found to be constitutional if their purpose is to check for:
A. drugs.
B. drivers under the influence of alcohol.
C. Both a and b
D. Neither a nor b
In United States v. Sharpe the Court ruled that a stop:
A. has no rigid time limit.
B. can be no longer than 5 minutes.
C. can be no longer than 10 minutes.
D. can be no longer than 20 minutes.
Officers can usually make a lawful arrest:
A. for any crime committed in their presence.
B. for any felony if they have probable cause.
C. with an arrest warrant.
D. All of the above
A Terry stop requires:
A. reasonable suspicion.
B. informational probable cause.
C. observational probable cause.
D. All of the above
Some states allow officers to arrest on a misdemeanor not committed in their presence in the case of:
A. domestic assault.
C. shoplifting.
D. All of the above
In Ohio v. Wireman (1993), the Court ruled that __________ is/are all an officer requires to make a reasonable stop of a motorist to investigate a traffic violation.
A. probable cause
B. specific, articulable facts
C. Both a and b
D. Neither a nor b
Who has complete immunity from arrest?
A. families of foreign diplomats
B. servants of foreign diplomats
C. Both a and b
D. Neither a nor b

If police officers make a stop for a traffic violation and are reasonably suspicious that the situation is dangerous, they:
A. can order driver and passenger(s) out of the car, but not frisk them.
B. cannot order driver or passenger(s) out of the car or frisk them.
C. can order driver and passenger(s) out of the car and frisk them.
D. can order driver and passenger(s) out of the car; can frisk driver, but not passengers.
The middle ground between a stop and an arrest is called:
A. an augmented stop.
B. a subarrest.
C. detention tantamount to arrest.
D. None of the above
A search incident to lawful arrest:
A. requires a warrant.
B. must be limited to only the body of the person under arrest.
C. may be conducted without a warrant.
D. Both a and b
Searches with a warrant:
A. are presumed to be unreasonable.
B. must be executed within 36 hours to be valid.
C. are presumed to be reasonable.
D. are considered justified beyond a reasonable doubt.
Plain view evidence is admissible in court:
A. if it was unconcealed.
B. if officers saw it while engaged in a lawful activity.
C. even if it was seen without a warrant.
D. All of the above
Routine searches at our national borders require:
A. reasonable suspicion.
B. consent.
C. Both a and b
D. Neither a nor b
Electronic surveillance:
A. is governed by the Fourth Amendment.
B. never requires a warrant.
C. produces no intrusion on one’s reasonable expectations of privacy.
D. All of the above
The law of stop and frisk:
A. is governed by the Fourth Amendment.
B. is authorized by the circumstances of an investigative stop.
C. involves only a limited pat down of the outer clothing.
D. All of the above
Exigent circumstances include all except:
A. driving while intoxicated.
B. a person fleeing upon seeing an officer approach.
C. hot pursuit.
D. danger of destruction of evidence.
The purpose of an inventory search of a person who is being jailed is to:
A. discover evidence of a crime.
B. protect officers and other prisoners.
C. Both a and b
D. Neither a nor b
Curtilage is:
A. another term for exigent circumstances.
B. abandoned property.
C. a term used to describe property generally associated with the common use of land.
D. Latin for “reasonable expectation of privacy.”
An administrative warrant is:
A. no different than a criminal warrant.
B. used by government agents to conduct routine inspections when the property owner refuses entry.
C. more difficult to obtain than other warrants.
D. valid for only 72 hours.