Multiple Choice Answers

Question 1
What are the traditional areas of focus within cultural anthropology?
A. Cultural resource management and applied anthropology
B. Ethnographic and ethnological research
C. Historical and descriptive linguistics
D. Primatology and contemporary human variation
Question 2
Goals of research in cultural anthropology include:
A. describing human races.
B. explaining the origin and spread of human diseases.
C. describing and explaining human geographic distribution.
D. explaining cultural similarities and differences.
Question 3
An object that is made by humans is called:
A. an ecofact.
B. an artifact.
C. a site.
D. a midden.
Question 4
What is meant by the “holistic” approach in anthropology?
A. Entire cultures are studied and compared.
B. The entire time of human existence is studied.
C. Human beings are viewed in the broadest context possible—biologically and culturally through time.
D. Cultures are studied using fieldwork and participant observation, together with a perspective of cultural relativism.
Question 5
The description of a single society based on fieldwork is called:
A. an ethnography.
B. an ethnology.
C. a comparative analysis.
D. a cultural anthropology.
Question 6
A positive adaptive value of cultural ethnocentrism is it may:
A. create divisions within the group.
B. result in individuals becoming pacifists.
C. result in a group becoming independent.
D. creat social cohesion for the group.
Question 7
Goldstein’s study of polyandry by Tibetans living in Nepal showed that polyandry:
A. resulted from the practice of infanticide.
B. prevented starvation.
C. prevented male-owned lands from being split.
D. was prohibited by religious beliefs.
Question 8
Research in anthropological archaeology includes:
A. classical archaeology and cultural resource management (CRM).
B. prehistoric archaeology and experimental archaeology.
C. paleoanthropology and prehistoric archaeology.
D. classical archaeology and paleoanthropology.
Question 9
Archaeological features include the following types of evidence:
A. soils and plants.
B. roadways and fire hearths.
C. projectile points and stone artifacts.
D. fossil remains and pollen.
Question 10
Anthropologists seek to explain human cultural behavior through the use of:
A. cultural relativism.
B. the scientific method.
C. fieldwork.
D. cultural resource management.
Question 11
The AAA Code of Ethics allows anthropologists to misrepresent themselves to their informants:
A. only if it is the only way to obtain data.
B. never.
C. occasionally in small matters.
D. if the data is of importance to national security.
Question 12
Which anthropologists are associated with the functionalist theoretical models?
A. Bronislaw Malinowski and A. R. Radcliffe-Brown
B. A. R. Radcliffe-Brown and Ruth Benedict
C. Roberta Edwards Lenkeit and Enrique Salazar
D. Margaret Mead and Franz Boas
Question 13
The function of theoretical models in anthropology is to:
A. define a research objective.
B. explain various aspects of the cultures being studied.
C. aid the researcher in writing research proposals.
D. obtain funding.
Question 14
Ethnographic accounts that include the personal reactions of the fieldworker to the field situation are termed:
A. reflexive.
B. classical.
C. personal.
D. reactive.
Question 15
Which of the following is a major challenge associated with fieldwork?
A. Recording interviews
B. Statistical analysis of data
C. Culture shock
D. Conflicting theoretical models
Question 16
The primary advantage of formal interviews is that they yield data that:
A. are real rather than ideal.
B. reflect personal attitudes.
C. are comparable and quantifiable.
D. have been gathered under controlled settings.
Question 17
The field method that focuses on kin relationships is known as the:
A. life history method.
B. formal interview method.
C. informal interview method.
D. genealogical method.
Question 18
Photographs are an important source of data because they:
A. accurately capture cultural belief systems.
B. capture unique events and behavior that can be used as analytical tools.
C. allow the anthropologist to capture images during forbidden rituals.
D. None of the above
Question 19
Comparing life histories of several individuals will:
A. provide information about culture change.
B. clarify the etic view of informants.
C. identify the important kin relationships within the culture.
D. make it difficult to quantify data.
Question 20
While conducting fieldwork, most anthropologists will avoid random sampling because:
A. anthropologists have found that judgment samples save time.
B. a small sample is sufficient.
C. random sampling is time consuming.
D. random sampling seldom reveals the full range of cultural behavior
Question 1
The process of learning one’s culture while growing up in that culture is called:
A. acculturation.
B. enculturation.
C. the culture concept.
D. a cognitive process.
Question 2
Every aspect of culture influences every other aspect of that culture. Thus, culture is:
A. functionally integrated.
B. dynamic and flexible.
C. adaptive and diverse.
D. learned and shared.
Question 3
To be considered part of a culture, a behavior or custom must be:
A. genetically inherited.
B. acquired by trial and error.
C. invented within the group.
D. shared by the group.
Question 4
What is meant by the phrase “extrasomatic context”?
A. Culture is not inherited genetically.
B. Culture is inherited genetically.
C. Culture is the result of a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors.
D. None of the above
Question 5
Most aspects of contemporary cultures have come from:
A. internal innovations.
B. internal inventions.
C. diffusion.
D. adaptations.
Question 6
Homogeneous cultures are characterized as:
A. small groups that share the same ideas, beliefs, values, knowledge, and behaviors.
B. small groups of the same ethnicity that do not share the same values.
C. microcultures within a subculture that share the same material culture.
D. large cultures that contain microcultures.
Question 7
The adoption of cellular phone technology throughout the world illustrates that culture is:
A. diverse.
B. cumulative.
C. learned.
D. dynamic.
Question 8
The field of computer technology could be used to illustrate that culture is:
A. cumulative.
B. learned.
C. shared.
D. patterned.
Question 9
Anthropologists prefer that the term “race” be replaced with the following term:
A. subspecies.
B. folk population.
C. ethnic group.
D. nation.
Question 10
When anthropologists say that human traits demonstrate plasticity, they mean that traits are:
A. influenced by the way they develop during the growth process.
B. modified by genetic errors.
C. determined by DNA variations.
D. determined by nutrition.
Question 11
Linguistics became part of anthropology because:
A. it provided a fast way to learn a language.
B. a knowledge of historical linguistics improved ethnographic fieldwork.
C. a linguistics study was often necessary prior to ethnographic fieldwork.
D. it was the first aspect of other cultures studied by anthropologists in the 1860s.
Question 12
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that:
A. language is an inevitable result of every culture.
B. language constructs our perception of reality.
C. linguistics is only applicable to cultures with written records.
D. culture is the result of language.
Question 13
You are a linguistic anthropologist studying the differences between suburbs and inner city gang languages. What area of linguistic anthropology are you studying?
A. Descriptive linguistics
B. Historical linguistics
C. Sociolinguistics
D. Ethnolinguistics
Question 14
Shona speakers have only three names for the colors of the rainbow. This means that:
A. they visually perceive only three colors.
B. their language groups several colors into one term.
C. they have a genetic defect for color vision.
D. they only describe colors as warm, cool, and neutral.
Question 15
Anthropological linguists hold the view that:
A. Tagalog and English are the least complex languages.
B. Chinese and Tahitian are more complex than English.
C. Arawak is the most complex language spoken.
D. all human languages are complex.
Question 16
Chimpanzees are not considered to have language because their communication system is:
A. open but lacks creative change.
B. open but lacks syntax.
C. closed and lacks displacement.
D. closed and lacks calls.
Question 17
Chomsky argues that:
A. we are born with innate abilities to acquire language.
B. we are not born with innate language abilities.
C. enculturation is primarily responsible for language acquisition.
D. genetics and culture combine equally for us to acquire language.
Question 18
The analysis of cultural gestures, facial expressions, and body positions is called:
A. kinesics.
B. displacement.
C. signing.
D. proxemics.
Question 19
The study of how people perceive and use space is called:
A. descriptive linguistics.
B. symbolic communication.
C. kinesics.
D. proxemics.
Question 20
The smallest combination of sounds that carry meaning is called:
A. the morpheme.
B. the phoneme.
C. syntax.
D. the labiodental fricative.
Question 1
The neoevolutionary model of culture developed by Elman Service is characterized by:
A. sociocultural stages of development based on degree of economic specialization.
B. evolutionary stages of development based on technological types.
C. evolutionary stages of development based on levels of political organization.
D. sociocultural stages of development based on subsistence patterns.
Question 2
The earliest substantial material evidences of human culture are found in:
A. North America.
B. Asia.
C. Africa.
D. Europe.
Question 3
Which of the following involves the study of the processes by which a society adapts to its environment?
A. Functionalist model
B. Cultural ecology model
C. Unilineal evolutionary model
D. Neoevolutionary model
Question 4
The primary functions of technology include the following:
A. the procurement of food, water, and shelter.
B. creating leisure time.
C. making more efficient use of time.
D. aiding groups in communication and contact.
Question 5
Foragers are organized into groups called:
A. bands.
B. tribes.
C. chiefdoms.
D. hunter-gatherers.
Question 6
A society is called “egalitarian” when its members have equal access to:
A. status, wealth, and power within the same age group.
B. status and wealth.
C. status and power within the same kin group.
D. the same status through balanced reciprocity.
Question 7
The ability of an econiche to support an organism is called its:
A. adaptive strategy.
B. carrying capacity.
C. nutritional balance.
D. ecological succession.
Question 8
Generalized reciprocity involves:
A. giving gifts to everyone, including neighboring groups.
B. giving of time, objects, and food among close kin.
C. giving where a reciprocal gift is expected.
D. gift exchange with the aim of receiving more than is given.
Question 9
Low energy budgets are associated with:
A. foragers.
B. horticulturalists.
C. pastoralists.
D. agriculturalists.
Question 10
One difficulty with applying Leslie White’s neoevolutionary model described in the text is:
A. the mathematical formulas require sophisticated computers.
B. local environmental differences affect the data.
C. raw ethnographic data is no longer available.
D. archaeological data is incomplete.
Question 11
In addition to their distinctive subsistence strategies, horticulturalists are characterized by what features?
A. Small population and low energy budget
B. Large population and land ownership
C. Large population and good nutrition
D. High energy budget and a loose division of labor
Question 12
Horticulturalists have poorer nutrition than foragers because:
A. their vitamin and mineral intakes are reduced.
B. they suffer from protein deficiency owing to lack of meat.
C. they live in crowded conditions and do not get enough to eat.
D. they have to work harder.
Question 13
Agriculturally based societies are primarily associated with the following economic institution(s):
A. generalized reciprocity.
B. market exchange.
C. redistribution and market exchange.
D. negative reciprocity and market exchange.
Question 14
A society with unequal access to resources within groups of the ame gender and status is known as:
A. a stratified society.
B. a chiefdom.
C. pastoralism.
D. redistribution.
Question 15
The Nuer of Sudan are said to practice which of the following subsistence strategies?
A. Horticulture
B. Foraging
C. Agriculture
D. Transhumance
Question 16
Agriculture as a subsistence strategy is based primarily on the use of:
A. slash-and-burn.
B. tractors and swidden methods.
C. sharecropping and slash-and-burn techniques.
D. fertilizers and irrigation.
Question 17
“Money” became important in state societies because the state needed:
A. to minimize the differences between social classes.
B. to be able to exchange goods with other societies.
C. a portable, impersonal medium of exchange.
D. a mechanism to unify the society.
Question 18
The text refers to all EXCEPT __________ as a form of currency.
A. cowry shells
B. knives
C. beads
D. fur
Question 19
Slow Food places an emphasis on:
A. the slow maturation of fruits and vegetables to preserve vitamins.
B. preserving the biodiversity of traditional food production.
C. reducing the fat and cholesterol in meat products.
D. preserving traditional foods among aboriginal societies.
Question 20
Slash and burn methods are used by horticulturalists primarily to:
A. add to soil nutrients.
B. clear land.
C. exterminate insect pests.
D. sterilize soils.
Question 1
A kinship relationship based on a blood connection is called:
A. consanguineal.
B. clan.
C. affinal.
D. collateral.
Question 2
A nuclear family consists of all of the following EXCEPT:
A. mother.
B. father.
C. siblings.
D. grandparents.
Question 3
Family that include persons that are NOT kin are called:
A. blended families.
B. single-parent families.
C. expanded families.
D. extended families.
Question 4
Of the following marriage patterns, which is most preferred in 79 percent of the world’s cultures?
A. Monogamy
B. Polyandry
C. Group
D. Polygyny
Question 5
Bridewealth refers to:
A. gifts from the groom’s family to the bride’s family.
B. wealth brought with the bride when she marries.
C. wealth already owned by the bride.
D. wealth accumulated prior to marriage.
Question 6
Which of the following marriage patterns allows the newly married couple to choose where they live?
A. Bilocal residence
B. Neolocal residence
C. Avunculocal residence
D. Matrilocal residence
Question 7
What marriage rule functions to assure that a man will have a replacement wife when his wife dies?
A. Levirate
B. Sororate
C. Exogamy
D. Endogamy
Question 8
What marriage rule functions to assure that a widow and her children are provided for?
A. Levirate
B. Sororate
C. Exogamy
D. Endogamy
Question 9
If someone is your affine (or affinal relative), you are related by:
A. blood.
B. marriage.
C. clan.
D. lineage.
Question 10
Tibet has a polyandrous marriage system in part because:
A. there is a shortage of women owing to the practice of infanticide.
B. polyandry limits population growth.
C. women own the wealth.
D. families want to avoid dividing land between brothers.
Question 11
All of the following are goals or aims that kinship systems achieve for their group members EXCEPT:
A. providing leadership roles.
B. organizing people into groups.
C. directing people’s behavior.
D. providing security for the group.
Question 12
Which of the following descent groups are predominate in the United States and Europe?
A. Patrilineal
B. Matrilineal
C. Ambilineal
D. Bilateral
Question 13
In this type of descent group, two individuals cannot actually trace how they are related by blood; rather, they trace their descent to a mythical ancestor.
A. Clan
B. Lineage
C. Phratry
D. Moiety
Question 14
A culture is described as having polygynous marriages and patrilineal descent, but data shows that fewer than twenty percent of the population is in a polygynous marriage. This illustrates what dichotomy?
A. Ideal/real
B. Culture/subculture
C. Culture/society
D. Etic/emic
Question 15
This common type of kinship organization found in large food-producing societies seems to function in the same way as clans and phratries and is called:
A. patrilineages.
B. segmentary lineages.
C. sodalities.
D. moieties.
Question 16
A significant advantage of unilineal descent groups is that they:
A. facilitate property inheritance.
B. determine residence.
C. dictate appropriate marriage partners.
D. control the choice of a chief.
Question 17
If your informant describes how her peers treat her differently because her father is an important film star, this is termed her __________ status.
A. earned
B. achieved
C. ascribed
D. ancillary
Question 18
An informant tells a fieldworker that the preferred marriage custom in his culture is for a man to marry his mother’s brother’s daughter. The fieldworker would label this as an example of what type of marriage?
A. Lineage double descent
B. Parallel cousin
C. Cross-cousin
D. Clan
Question 19
The Inuit kinship terminological system was so named because it was:
A. only used by the Inuit.
B. first described for the Inuit.
C. only found among such foraging societies as the Inuit.
D. a primary feature of aboriginal arctic societies.
Question 20
In some cultures, a person’s mother’s brother’s child is known as his or her:
A. cross-cousin.
B. parallel cousin.
C. in-law.
D. non-relative relationship.
Question 1
A group of people who have a similar relationship to the mechanisms of wealth, power, and social status is termed a(n):
A. class.
B. stratified group.
C. caste.
D. age set.
Question 2
According to Elman Service, the basic types of political structure include:
A. bands, tribes, and kingdoms.
B. bands, tribes, and states.
C. bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states.
D. bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and nations.
Question 3
Band organization is found among which types of societies?
A. Horticultural and pastoral
B. Foraging
C. Intensive agricultural
D. State
Question 4
Which term has been used to designate a stage in human evolution, as a catchall term for “primitive” people, and as a political system of non-state societies?
A. Band
B. Chiefdom
C. Tribe
D. Hunter-gatherer
Question 5
Chiefdoms differ from tribes primarily as a result of the:
A. environments they inhabit.
B. accumulation of goods.
C. hereditary office of chief.
D. domestic mode of production.
Question 6
Sodalities first appear at which societal level?
A. Band.
B. Tribe.
C. Chiefdom.
D. Nation.
Question 7
In a band society, who would most likely be responsible for punishing a murderer?
A. Sodality member
B. Judge
C. Friend of the victim
D. Close kin member
Question 8
Supernatural connections to political leadership are most closely associated with:
A. bands.
B. tribes.
C. chiefdoms.
D. states.
Question 9
Rank societies are those where individuals gain prestige and wealth by using:
A. coercive power.
B. persuasive power.
C. coercive authority.
D. simple authority.
Question 10
It is often difficult to identify who the leader is in a foraging society because:
A. you can’t tell who is the oldest person.
B. the leader will not wear a leadership insignia or live in special housing.
C. leadership varies depending on what types of decisions need to be made.
D. outward indicators of wealth are difficult to observe.
Question 11
Polytheistic belief systems can be defined as belief systems:
A. consisting of one all-powerful god or goddess.
B. where special knowledge is held by shamans.
C. where both supernatural forces and beings are found.
D. consisting of multiple gods or goddesses.
Question 12
Which statement best describes the difference between magic and religion?
A. Religion contains many ceremonies, whereas magic does not.
B. Religion gives people a euphoric feeling, whereas magic does not.
C. Magic is the belief of aboriginal populations, whereas religion is the belief of advanced cultures.
D. Magic deals primarily with supernatural forces, whereas religion deals primarily with supernatural beings.
Question 13
A part-time practitioner who has special abilities for handling supernatural forces is called a:
A. priest.
B. shaman.
C. mana.
D. churinga.
Question 14
The term “mana” is best defined as:
A. a member of a hierarchy of priests.
B. the implements used in magical ceremonies.
C. a supernatural impersonal force.
D. a ritual of intensification.
Question 15
The socially disruptive behavior a person exhibits may be attributed to the action of a:
A. trickster.
B. soul.
C. goddess.
D. demon.
Question 16
Anthropological research has demonstrated that supernatural beings and forces exist in what percentage of the world’s cultures?
A. 50 percent
B. 80 percent
C. 95 percent
D. 100 percent
Question 17
A rite of passage will usually involve what steps?
A. Withdrawal, initiation, and incorporation
B. Separation, initiation, and incorporation
C. Separation, transition, and incorporation
D. Withdrawal, transition, and incorporation
Question 18
In most cultures around the world, a witch would likely:
A. deny being a witch.
B. also be a ghost.
C. readily admit to being a witch.
D. change form to avoid detection.
Question 19
Which of the following is a rite of intensification?
A. An American family celebrating the Fourth of July with a party
B. A couple celebrating fifty years of marriage
C. Your child’s sixteenth birthday party
D. The celebration of an employee’s retirement
Question 20
Saying grace—or any prayer—before every meal is an example of what supernatural function?
A. Supportive function
B. Educational function
C. Revitalizing function
D. Disciplining function

Question 1
The imitative magic hypothesis to explain Upper Paleolithic cave art states that magic that is performed on:
A. a picture of an animal can influence the living animal.
B. a hoof print of the animal can influence the living animal.
C. a sample of an animal’s hair can influence other similar animals.
D. drawings on the body of an animal can influence its health.
Question 2
The Venus of Willendorf is an example of:
A. parietal art.
B. mobile art.
C. a fetish figure.
D. a poltergeist.
Question 3
The bison at Altamira are very natural in appearance and attest to the competence of the artists in the use of what is labeled:
A. expressionism.
B. paint.
C. tone.
D. abstraction.
Question 4
The oldest musical instruments found in the archaeological record are:
A. flutes.
B. drums.
C. cymbals.
D. maracas.
Question 5
Recent interest in the functions of Upper Palaeolithic cave art has focused on art:
A. for education.
B. for use in ceremonies.
C. for imitative magic.
D. as symbols.
Question 6
The red deer that is on the ceiling at Altamira is significant because this painting shows:
A. naturalism.
B. realism.
C. abstraction.
D. distortion.
Question 7
Which Upper Paleolithic cave has been called the Sistine Chapel of prehistory art?
A. Grotto Chauvet
B. Altamira
C. Lascaux
D. La Marche
Question 8
The Cuna of San Blas, Panama, express themselves through the art of molas, which are:
A. colorful woven textiles made from alpaca wool.
B. colorful multi-layered appliqués on blouses.
C. carved wooden panels depicting tribal history.
D. carved mush paddles with geometric designs.
Question 9
One major criticism of the unilineal evolutionists’ models of cultural evolution is that the models:
A. were based on incorrect data.
B. were developed by colonial governments.
C. were developed to support missionary work.
D. were based on very little ethnographic data.
Question 10
Programs of planned change often do not have the desired effect because of:
A. planners’ failure to adequately supply technology.
B. planners’ failure to employ technical aid experts to assess the plan.
C. unethical practices on the part of anthropologists.
D. planners’ failure to understand the impact of cultural issues on change.
Question 11
Franz Boas was responsible for developing the approach that has come to be known as:
A. historical particularism.
B. unilineal evolutionism.
C. functionalism.
D. diffusionism.
Question 12
The three categories that George Foster outlined in his analysis of barriers to culture change were:
A. cultural barriers, social barriers, and psychological barriers.
B. culture structure barriers, technological barriers, and fatalistic barriers.
C. technological barriers, economic barriers, and cultural barriers.
D. economic barriers, social barriers, and cultural barriers.
Question 13
The borrowing that takes place between cultures as a result of prolonged contact is termed:
A. acculturation.
B. enculturation.
C. invention.
D. hegemony.
Question 14
The approach that examines the adaptations made by rural peoples as they move into cities is called:
A. urbanization studies.
B. microeconomic studies.
C. urban poverty studies.
D. acculturation studies.
Question 15
Though their health is at risk, most North Americans fail to get regular exercise and improve their diets. Which of Foster’s barriers to change applies to this situation?
A. Norms of modesty
B. Tradition
C. Relative values
D. Miscommunication
Question 16
Workers in the area of planned culture change have noted that the most important stimulant or motivator of change is:
A. desire for economic gain.
B. appeals to nationalism.
C. competition.
D. cultural ethnocentrism.
Question 17
The major source of change for any culture is:
A. innovation.
B. invention.
C. directed change programs.
D. diffusion.
Question 18
Comparative data from other cultures and non-human primate studies suggest that human children should be weaned between __________ years of age.
A. 1.5 and 2
B. 2 and 3
C. 2.5 and 4
D. 2.5 and 7
Question 19
When anthropologists study globalization, the focus is most commonly on:
A. individuals and cultural process.
B. individuals and political process.
C. nation-states and economic processes.
D. nation-states and social processes.
Question 20
The ideological domination by one cultural group over another through institutions, bureaucracy, education – and sometimes force – is termed:
A. colonialism.
B. hegemony.
C. imperialism.
D. globalization.