Multiple Choice Answers

Question 1
Which part of the brain is associated with feelings of empathy?
A. Frontal lobes
B. Inferior parietal lobe
C. Left hemisphere
D. Right hemisphere
Question 2
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of frontal lobe damage?
A. Difficulty in logical reasoning
B. Impulsivity
C. Tendency toward apathy
D. Loss of motor function
Question 3
Studies found evidence of sex differences in all EXCEPT:
A. antisocial tendencies.
B. delinquency.
C. conduct disorders.
D. intelligence.
Question 4
Proponents of learning theory are best described by what term?
A. Deontological
B. Teleological
C. Relativist
D. Absolutist
Question 5
According to learning theorists:
A. behavior arises from moral beliefs.
B. moral behavior arises through reason.
C. moral beliefs arise from a habit of moral behavior that is the product of reinforcement.
D. negative reinforcement is the most effective way to teach moral belief.
Question 6
Which of the following is NOT associated with learning theory?
A. Moral reasoning
B. Cognitive dissonance
C. Reinforcement
D. Modeling
Question 7
Shermer believes that morality is a product of:
A. learning.
B. reasoning.
C. evolution.
D. negative reinforcement.
Question 8
Who of the following is NOT associated with developmental theories?
A. Kohlberg
B. Bandura
C. Gilligan
D. Piaget
Question 9
According to Kohlberg, which is the first stage of moral development?
A. Punishment and obedience orientation
B. Instrument and relativity orientation
C. Social contract orientation
D. Law and order orientation
Question 10
According to Kohlberg, there are __________ stages of moral development.
A. Six
B. Seven
C. Five
D. Three
Question 11
Which ethical system is most consistent with a Marxist theory of distributive justice?
A. Ethics of Virtue
B. Ethical Formalism
C. Ethics of Care
D. Utilitarianism
Question 12
Which type of justice is concerned with business dealings?
A. Libertarian
B. Corrective
C. Rectificatory
D. Distributive
Question 13
Which type of justice is most closely associated with discussions of criminal law?
A. Commutative
B. Corrective
C. Utilitarianism
D. Distributive
Question 14
Which theory of distributive justice would be most opposed to government involvement in the distribution of goods?
A. Libertarian
B. Utilitarian
C. Egalitarian
D. Marxist
Question 15
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of Rawls’s theory of justice?
A. Utilitarian principles
B. Concern for rights
C. Freedom from government interference
D. Concern for the least advantaged members of society
Question 16
Rawls’s veil of ignorance states that:
A. welfare should be given to the least advantaged or ignorant in our society.
B. one must be ignorant of his or her own position in society in order to make just decisions.
C. ignorance results in unfairness.
D. because we are ignorant of God’s plan, equal distribution of goods is the most just.
Question 17
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of Sterba’s distribution system?
A. Principle of Minimal Contribution
B. Principle of Saving
C. Principle of Need
D. Principle of Transaction
Question 18
Retributive justice is best described by what term?
A. Balance
B. Deterrence
C. Compensation
D. Rehabilitation
Question 19
Deterrence is the central theme of what theory of corrective justice?
A. Utilitarian
B. Retributive
C. Substantive
D. Compensatory
Question 20
The mediator between people’s essential selfishness and generosity is:
A. law.
B. ethics.
C. justice.
D. mercy.