Multiple Choice Answers

1. Which of the following presents the major sections of an APA style empirical research report in the correct order?
a. Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion
b. Method, Results, Discussion, Abstract
c. Abstract, Discussion, Method, Results
d. Method, Introduction, Discussion, Results
2. Researchers are most likely to use open-ended items under which of the following conditions?
a. They have a specific construct that they want to measure.
b. They do not have preconceived ideas about how people will respond.
c. They want their data to be quick and easy to analyze.
d. They are conducting their survey over the Internet.
3. Which of the following is generally an advantage of closed-ended items over open-ended items?
a. They get more directly at the specific variables the researcher is interested in.
b. People’s responses are easier to analyze.
c. People can respond to them more quickly.
d. all of the above
4. True or False.
Responses to open-ended items are generally easier to analyze than responses to closed-ended items.

5. The BRUSO model is a model of which of the following?
a. how people respond to survey questionnaire items
b. the process of administering a survey
c. good survey questionnaire items
d. none of the above
6. For most purposes, which of the following would be the best response scale?
a. Disagree / Neutral / Somewhat Agree / Agree / Strongly Agree
b. Disagree / Neutral / Agree
c. Do Not Care / Disagree / Neutral / Agree / Care Strongly
d. Strongly Disagree / Disagree / Neutral / Agree / Strongly Agree
7. A survey research randomly samples 500 white Americans and 500 black Americans. Which approach has the researcher used?
a. stratified random sampling
b. cluster sampling
c. nonprobability sampling
d. simple random sampling
8. What is the best way to address the problem of nonresponse bias?
a. ignore the nonresponders when analyzing the data
b. force everyone to respond
c. do everything possible to maximize response rates
d. write unbiased questionnaire items
9. Which survey type generally has the highest response rate?
a. in person
b. telephone
c. mail
d. Internet
10.What is the defining feature of nonexperimental research?
a. It is about personality and individual differences.
b. It lacks the manipulation of an independent variable, random assignment, or both.
c. It involves only one variable.
d. It has high external validity.
11.True or False
It is always best to avoid conducting nonexperimental research.   FALSE
12.Nonexperimental research is appropriate when the independent variable cannot be manipulated.  TRUE
13.A quasi-experiment includes the random assignment of participants to conditions or orders of conditions.  FALSE
14.Which of the following is most likely to be studied using a correlational study?
a. the effect of study strategy on recall
b. the effect of traumatic childhood experiences on adult depression
c. the effect of noise level on mental concentration
d. the effect of wearing glasses on how attractive people are perceived to be
15.Which of the following generally has the highest internal validity?
a. experiments
b. quasi-experiments
c. correlational studies
d. qualitative studies
16.A researcher conducts a study on the relationship between caffeine consumption and performance on a math test. What kind of study is this?
a. experimental
b. correlational
c. quasi-experimental
d. There is not enough information here to tell for sure.
17.Which of the following is the defining feature of correlational research?
a. An independent variable is manipulated while extraneous variables are controlled.
b. One variable is measured and described.
c. Research participants are interviewed in depth about their experiences.
d. Two variables are measured and the relationship between them is assessed.
18.A quasi-experiment includes which of the following?
a. random sampling of participants
b. random assignment of participants to conditions
c. the manipulation of an independent variable
d. none of the above
19. “Mixed methods research” refers to which of the following?
a. research that combines quantitative and qualitative approaches
b. research that combines experimental and correlational approaches
c. research that combines experimental and quasi-experimental approaches
d. research that combines basic and applied approaches
20.A new anti-drug program is instituted at one elementary school. Then the attitudes of the students toward drugs are compared to the attitudes of students at a similar elementary school without the program. What kind of research design is this?
a. a between-subjects experiment
b. a correlational study
c. a nonequivalent groups design
d. a pretest-posttest design
21.What are the two main characteristics of survey research?
a. large random samples and self-report measures
b. self-report measures and face-to-face interviews
c. face-to-face interviews and statistical analysis
d. statistical analysis and large random samples