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Which of the following is NOT a correct statement?
For Machiavelli, virtue, ethics, and morality are instrumental values.
If all else fails in the pursuit of power, Machiavelli would counsel that one must be prepared to use the “good” acts and “virtuous” means of manipulation, deception, coercion, and even murder.
Machiavelli draws no distinction between morality in the public arena and the private sphere.
If absolutely necessary to secure one’s business promotion, Machiavelli would advise sabotaging the career of one’s competitor by making false and anonymous accusations of immorality on the company’s ethics “hot line.”

Question 2
Someone who believes that moral duties are based on universal rules, and that the actor must abide by the same rules being applied to others, believes in which moral theory?
Ethical Relativism
Utilitarianism
Ethical egoism
Kantian ethics

Question 3
Christina, a salesperson for Delta Computer Corporation, attempts to apply ethical principles in dealing with customers and suppliers. Ethical principles are, according to Socrates:
Absolute and universal
Constantly changing
Flexible and supple
Not applicable to business entities since they exist to make money.

Question 4
Which of the following statements is NOT accurate?
Psychological egoism is an ethical and normative theory that prescribes how people should behave in certain situations.
An ethical egoist thinks primarily of what will benefit his or her self-interest in the long-run.
Public good and the general welfare are based on people fulfilling their selfish interests, according to one defense of the doctrine of ethical egoism.
“Justice is the will of the stronger” would be a characteristic Sophist statement.

Question 5
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement?
One advantage to a Natural Rights theory of ethics is that it can provide very specific and precise moral rules to guide conduct.
One problem with Rousseau’s Social Contract theory of ethics is that it is very difficult to determine with any exactitude what constitutes the General Will of the people.
According to Machiavelli, Fate or Fortune rules a good part of a person’s actions, and thus a shrewd and smart person should be prepared to adapt one’s actions to circumstances imposed by Fate.
“Soft” Determinism implies that one can make a true choice between good and bad moral alternatives.

Question 6

Consumer Products, Inc., asks its employees, many of whom are unionized, to apply the Utilitarian theory of ethics. This theory does NOT require
A choice among alternatives that will produce maximum social utility
A determination of what individuals will be affected by an action
An assessment of the positive and negative consequences of alternative actions on individuals affected
The acquiring of the means of production and distribution by the workers.

Question 7

Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement?
According to Locke, people’s rights to freedom and equality exist naturally in the state of nature even before any civil government is created.
Natural rights exist, according to Locke, but only if the rights are granted by the government to its citizens and legal residents.
Kant would condemn Utilitarianism as an immoral ethical theory because he maintains that “the ends do not justify the means.”
According to Locke, people have the natural right to own private property.
.0.5 points
Question 8

Which course of action would the aggregationist view of Utilitarianism require to be taken:
The one that provides at least some good to the greatest number of people.
The one that provides the greatest overall good to society, even if the benefit of that alternative only flows to a few people.
The one that harms the smallest number of people.
The one that places the greatest number of people in a better position than they were previously.

Question 9

Which of the following statements is correct?
Intrinsic values are deemed to be good because of their consequences and because they are a desired means to an end.
Moral rules, as well as exceptions to moral rules, are established by means of ethical principles.
There are no important differences between social conventions and moral rules.
Most moral questions have clearly demonstrable correct answers that can be scientifically established.

Question 10

Which of the following is a correct statement?
Kant maintained that since Fate ruled all one’s actions, one could not be held morally accountable for a bad action.
An intelligent person resolves moral issues by appealing to what most people believe.
Self-control is a necessary trait of the moral person.

Question 11
Eva, the chief executive officer of Federated Corporation, wants to ensure that the company’s activities are legal and achieve the greater good. The best course for Eva and her company is to act in
Ignorance of the law
Regard for the firm’s shareholders only
Their own self-interest
None of the above.

Question 12
Laredo believes that all ethical standards and principles are set forth in a book called Ethics for All that was written by a prominent ethics philosopher. Laredo refers to this book for guidance and rules by which to lead his life. Which of the following ethical theories most accurately describes Laredo’s approach and conduct?
Kantian ethics
Utilitarianism
Ethical Relativism
Social Darwinism

Question 13
Fran, an executive with Global Sales Corporation, has to decide whether to market a useful product that nonetheless might have undesirable side-effects for a small number of users. What ethical theory would the Sophists advise her to use so that her firm can morally market the product?
Kantian ethics
Corporate Social Responsibility
Utilitarianism
Last Resort theory.

Question 14
Whistleblowing may be morally required when:
A code of ethics requires it.
Kantian ethics demands it as the morally right thing to do.
The DeGeroge whistleblowing ethics principle applies.
All of the above.

Question 15
Bribery of foreign government officials can be:
Legal as a “facilitating and expediting” exception under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Moral pursuant to Utilitarian ethics if all the stakeholders benefit.
Moral pursuant to Ethical Relativism.
All of the above.

Question16
A key aspect of business leadership today is:
Creating and communicating a vision.
Securing acceptance of the vision and inspiring followers to realize the vision.
Convincing followers and stakeholders that the vision is an inherently moral one.
All of the above.

Question17
Engel Tool Company’s decision-makers view a particular risk in the use of the company’s product as “open and obvious.” Continuing to market the product without telling consumers of the risk could be best justified from a perspective of
Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics
Kantian ethics
Natural Law theory
Utilitarian ethics.

Question 18
Fine Clothes Company buys clothing assembled by Gamma, Ltd, a foreign firm that employs young children for long hours and low pay. Gamma’s nation does not enforce its child labor laws. Human International Politics (HIP), a political activist organization, discovers Fine Clothes’ connection to Gamma and plans to reveal this information. Before HIP does so, however, Fine Clothes publicly releases the information itself, states that it is “shocked and disappointed” by Gamma, and announces that it is severing its relationship with Gamma. Fine Clothes adroitly publicizes its action in its advertising, and the company’s sales and profits increase, apparently as a direct result. From an ethical perspective, Fine’s conduct can best be characterized as:
Legal, moral, and socially responsible
Ethically egoistic
Immoral since most advertisers usually misrepresent things
In conformity with Kantian ethics.

Question 19
Today, the term “corporate governance” encompasses:
Legal restrictions on corporate behavior, particularly from the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Moral restrictions on corporate behavior, particularly from company codes of ethics.
A societal expectation that a corporation today must be a “socially responsible” one.
All of the above.

Question 20
A business that continues to operate its domestic factories in order to avoid layoffs rather than shift its production to lower cost facilities overseas is most directly applying which value?
Legal positivism
Profit maximization
Stakeholder interests
Moral Heroism.

Question 21

University of Chicago Professor Milton Friedman famously said about social responsibility:
The social responsibility of business is to make money legally.
Big multinational corporations must solve all the social problems in the world.
Business is immoral for not helping out in the community.
When in Rome, do as the Romans.

Question22
Which of the following is a correct statement regarding the definition of corporate “social responsibility”?
In the interests of preserving personal freedom, the law in the United States codifies in detail social responsibility rules.
For a social responsibility analysis the acceptable standard for moral behavior is compliance with the legal law.
A minimum socially responsible standard for business is compliance with the law.
By law in the U.S., an employer typically is required to provide to the mayor of a local community where the employer does business a clear set of social responsibility standards and rules based on the values of the community.

Question 23
Social responsibility is best described as a company being:
Saintly in the moral sense
Helpful in a prudent manner in the community
Lawful only
Altruistic to all stakeholders.

Question 24
Commercial Products Company (CPC) markets its products nationwide. When making a decision, CPC should, in order to be a socially responsible firm, take into account the needs of
Consumers and employees
Owners and shareholders
Society and community
All of the above

Question 25
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Basing one’s behavior on the adage, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” is part of Kantian ethics.
An ethical theory that says each person is presumed to have entered into an agreement with all others in society to obey moral rules that are necessary for people to live in peace and harmony is called Social Contract ethics.
A doctrine that says that a corporation should consider its presence in the community and society and the effects its actions have on persons or groups other than the shareholders is called Corporate Social Responsibility.
A theory of social responsibility that says that business must solve global problems such as poverty and disease is called Legal Nonfeasance.

Question 26
The doctrine that holds that business has an obligation to generally do good charitable deeds for society is:
Moral minimum
Maximizing profits
Social responsibility
Corporate legal status.

Question 27

Maria owns her own business and has just attended a cash flow management seminar where it was suggested the businesses should delay paying their suppliers as long as absolutely possible even if doing so violates the stated payment terms. Maria decides to continue paying her supplies on time in accordance with their payment terms because Maria would like her customers to pay her on time. Maria has reached her decision primarily in accordance with:
Ethical relativism
Utilitarianism
Corporate social responsibility
Kantian ethics.

Question 28
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the relationship of law and ethics?
The legal requirement will almost always be the same as the ethical requirement because the law is equivalent to the ethical standards.
In some cases ethics will require a higher standard of conduct than the law, but never the opposite.
In some cases the law will require a higher standard of conduct than ethics, but never the opposite.
Depending on the circumstances, the law can require a higher, lower, or the same standard of conduct as ethics demands.

Question 29
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
Answer Morals are legal minimums.
Morals are legal maximums.
Laws are moral minimums.
Laws are moral maximums.

Question 30
Corporate codes of ethics can be derived from principles obtained from:
Legal sources
Utilitarianism
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
All of the above.

Question 31
Which of the following is an accurate statement?
If business fails to be sufficiently social responsible it is thereby acting immorally too.
A corporation is recognized legal “person” but it is not a moral “person” for the purposes of ethical evaluation of corporate activities.
According to the Friedman view of the corporation, it has no moral or social responsibility, and its only obligation is to make money legally.
The corporation only is obligated morally to its shareholders, and thus owes no moral responsibilities to any other stakeholder groups.

Question 32
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement?
A company’s code of ethics must demand altruistic behavior from the firm’s employees.
All members of a profession are professionals but not all professionals are members of a profession.
Business management cannot yet be regarded as a profession because business management lacks a general code of ethics for managers as well as the typical autonomy of the traditional professions.
In recent years, businesses have taken a more active role in dealing with social problems.

Question 34
International Sales Corporation, like other business, has enforceable duties prescribed by
Ethics and the law
Ethics only
Neither ethics nor the law
The law only

Question 35
What did Kant mean by the “Categorical” part to his Categorical Imperative?
You must act legally, period, because the “law is the law.”
You and your company must act in a socially responsible manner if you and your company want to be placed in the “good corporate citizen” category.
You must act morally if the consequences are definitely good for you and your firm.
You must act morally based on what your reason informs you is the supreme ethical principle and the correct moral course of action regardless of consequences.

Question 36
Which of the following is a correct statement?
The legal law ultimately rests on coercion and force, whereas ethics relies on persuasion and social sanctions to enforce moral rules.
Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from general principles or definitions.
Socrates thought that obtaining knowledge was impossible and thus the search for knowledge was a waste of time and effort.
An ethics based on one’s conscience or religion is a very scientific form of ethics since appeals to one’s conscience or intuition as a moral guide are objective and impersonal and not subject to rationalization.

Question 37
Biotech Research Associates asks it employees to consider ethical behavior from the Categorical Imperative perspective. This ethical approach
Allows a person to legally control the behavior who behave unethically
Does not permit individuals to engage in socially responsible actions
Focuses primarily on personal advancement
Forces a person to consider what would happen as the result of one’s action if everyone behaved in a similar way.