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How is a population defined?
all of the individuals of the same species
all of the individuals of the same species that occupy the same area
all of the individuals of the same species that have the possibility of breeding with one another
both b and c
What is a gene pool?
all of the genes and genotypes present in a genus
all of the genes and genotypes present in a population
all of the possible alleles for one characteristic
the amino acids available for protein synthesis
What do the terms evolution and evolve mean in the field of biology?
The word evolution means change, and things that change are said to evolve. Biologically, this occurs at the level of the population, not the organism.
The word evolution means change, and things that change are said to evolve. Biologically, this occurs when a single organism’s features are modified by the environment in which it lives.
The word evolution means change, and things that change are said to evolve. Biologically, this occurs when a small group of organisms acquire a trait through repeated reactions to a new stimulus.
none of the above
What four factors can cause the frequency of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool to change; i.e., what four factors can cause evolution to occur?
natural selection, mutation , gene flow, and genetic drift
weather, season, amount of daylight, and humidity
temperature, pH, salinity, and density
dominant/recessive, incomplete dominant, co-dominant, and polygenic traits
What is meant by the phrase “evolution through natural selection”?
Living organisms that are badly suited to survive in their environment are able to modify their genes to make themselves better suited to their environment.
Living organisms that are better suited to their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass their genes on to the next generation.
Living organisms that encounter changes in their environment are able to modify their genes to survive the change.
Living organisms that are badly suited to their environment are less likely to survive and reproduce, which makes it less likely that they will pass their genes on to the next generation.
both b and d
Which of the following individuals is/are credited with stating the theory of evolution through natural selection?
Francis Crick
Charles Darwin
Rosalind Franklin
Carolus Linneaus
Barbara McClintock
Gregor Mendel
Alfred Wallace
James Watson
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
What is an adaptive trait?
a characteristic whose genes are located on the X or Y chromosome
a feature that is no longer used by the organism
the particular features that allow an organism to survive in a particular environment
the characteristic expressed when the genotype is heterozygous
Consider a man with the genotype Bb who leaves his country of birth and moves to another country where all of the people have the genotype BB. He marries a BB woman and they have a Bb child. Is this an example of gene flow or genetic drift?
gene flow
genetic drift
neither of the above
In the evolutionary tree discussed earlier in this section, which two species of bears share the closest evolutionary relationship? Which two species of bears are most distantly related to one another?
a. closely: spectacled and giant panda; distantly: spectacled and sloth
b. closely: sloth and giant panda; distantly: spectacled and giant panda
c. closely: spectacled and sloth; distantly: spectacled and giant panda
d. closely: spectacled and sloth; distantly: giant panda and sloth
To what does the term macroevolution refer?
a change over time in a large population of organisms
an adaptation in which a small trait becomes larger over time
a field of study that attempts to identify similarities within all of this diversity and determine which species share an evolutionary relationship
an adaptation that is a clearly visible physical characteristic
What types of similarities do scientists consider when attempting to determine whether two organisms share an evolutionary relationship and a common ancestor?
historical comparisons
anatomical comparisons
developmental pattern comparisons
biochemical comparisons
all of the above
Which of the following individuals is/are credited with devising the bionomical system of classification?
Francis Crick
Charles Darwin
Rosalind Franklin
Carolus Linneaus
Barbara McClintock
Gregor Mendel
Alfred Wallace
James Watson
What are the benefits of using a uniform system of grouping and naming living organisms?
allows us to organize information about living organisms
allows us to see how living organisms compare with one another
allows us to see how living organisms are related to each other in evolutionary terms
both b and c
all of the above
What are the seven groups in the binomial classification system, listed from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most restrictive?
genus, species, kingdom, phylum, family, order, class
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
species, class, order, phylum, family, genus, kingdom
kingdom, class, phylum, genus, family, order, species
What are the six kingdoms into which scientists group living organisms?
autotrophs, heterotrophs, consumers, producers, decomposers, reproducers
herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, consumers, producers, decomposers
mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, birds, amphibians
eubacteria, archaebacteria, protista, animalia, fungi, plantae