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Exam: 501161RR – Preventing and Policing White-Collar Crime
1. White-collar crime literature ignores all of the following theories except _______ theory.
A. routine activities
B. life course
C. gender
D. social disorganization

2. Which of the following is not a factor identified by Tillman and Pontell that contributes to the leniency
given to white-collar offenders?
A. A “Status Shield” is provided by occupation prestige.
B. Due to the complex nature of white-collar cases, more lenient punishments are justified
C. White-collar criminals can afford better attorneys compared to traditional offenders.
D. White-collar offenders typically are more physically attractive.

3. Which regulatory style addresses violations most aggressively?
A. Legalistic agencies
B. Free-agent style
C. Retributive strategy
D. Watchmen style

4. Some of the judges studied believe that, in addition to jail time, _______ is a powerful deterrent to future
white-collar crime.
A. refusal to plea bargain
B. publicity
C. a large fine
D. community service

5. What is ironic about the short prison sentences white-collar offenders are likely to receive?
A. Most depression and adjustment problems occur in the first few months of imprisonment.
B. The appeal process for the prison sentences is almost always lengthier than the prison term.
C. The short sentences can still ruin their life and career.
D. With short sentences, white-collar offenders are more likely to offend again or from prison because they have the attitude that
it can’t get any worse.

6. Based on research, which type of offender is more likely to neutralize his or her actions?
A. Male workers
B. Older workers
C. Younger workers
D. Executives

7. If a prosecutor agrees not to prosecute a corporation if the corporation agrees to conditions that must be
completed over a probation period, the prosecutor has used which of the following?
A. Null Prosecution Agreement
B. Recessed Prosecution Agreement
C. Non-Prosecution Agreement
D. Deferred Prosecution Agreement

8. According to Merton, white-collar workers who accept neither the goals of society nor the means to
achieve those goals are
A. retreatists.
B. nonconformists.
C. rebels.
D. innovators.

9. Which of the following is not an aspect of the judicial response to white-collar crimes?
A. Rarely involves more than one judicial proceeding
B. Presents numerous complexities to those involved in adjudicating the case
C. Processed through several different judicial proceedings
D. Involve the efforts of many different actors in the judicial process

10. Which of the following describes the victim’s role in the white-collar crime trial process?
A. Victims are extremely involved throughout the entire process.
B. As of 2004, victims can now speak prior to sentencing hearings.
C. Victims, especially if the victim is a corporation, help to pay for prosecution costs.
D. Victims have no role in the judicial process other than referring the case to authorities.

11. White-collar criminal investigations are considered extremely complex because
A. conventional interrogation methods are used.
B. a fraud case can include as much as 250,000 pages of information.
C. the systematic approach contributes to the complexity.
D. all the players have the same goal.

12. Which strategy for gathering evidence in a white-collar crime case specifically employs the principle of
A. Audits
B. Undercover strategies
C. Whistleblowers
D. Record reviews

13. Cesare Beccaria’s criteria for effective punishment include all the following except that punishment
must be
A. certain.
B. related to the crime.
C. swift.
D. proportional to the crime.

14. Filing unnecessary or unwarranted appeals or misusing furloughs is considered
A. a result of more lenient treatment of white-collar criminals.
B. expected behavior among white-collar criminals.
C. deviant misuse of the justice process.
D. part of the way white-collar criminals stay out of jail.

15. Neutralization theory stipulates that neutralization must occur before the criminal act, so the offender
A. learns new behavior.
B. can develop the skills to commit the crime.
C. perceives the positive consequences if he’s caught.
D. has the mental strength to commit the crime.

16. Equalizing the sentences imposed for street crimes and white-collar crimes was behind the passage of
A. Criminal Disparity Act.
B. Comprehensive Sentencing Act.
C. Sentencing Reform Act.
D. White-Collar Offenders’ Reform Bill.

17. Which of the following is not a way in which international cooperation can be improved?
A. Develop police networks with a common language
B. Identify communication channels
C. Have one agency with representatives from several countries in charge of policing international crime
D. Provide more education regarding international response

18. What factor has been found to be correlated with both street and white-collar crime?
A. Poverty
B. Anxiety
C. Stress
D. Depression

19. Parallel proceedings have been questioned because of potential problems with all of the following
A. due process violations.
B. missed deadlines for bankruptcy proceedings.
C. double jeopardy.
D. excessive fines.

20. The theory that provides insight into the interconnections among various societal systems and the way
those systems influence white-collar crime is the _______ theory.
A. societal
B. systems
C. strain
D. institutional anomie