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1. Which of the following statements regarding stereotypes and prejudice is true?
A. Prejudice is to action as discrimination is to attitudes.
B. Stereotypes can be positive or negative.
C. Where there are stereotypes we always find prejudice.
D. A self-fulfilling prophecy always precedes prejudice.
2. Two psychology students are in a heated discussion about the nature of prejudice. Mavis insists that that when people get their identity from membership in a political action group, they will generally express ethnocentrism. Martin argues that with or without ethnocentrism, social identity based in group membership is inevitably associated with the demonization of minority groups. Who is correct?
A. Martin is correct.
B. Mavis is correct.
C. Neither Mavis nor Martin is correct.
D. Both Mavis and Martin are correct.
3. Which branch of psychology focuses on worker motivation and productivity?
A. Profit psychology
B. Industrial-organizational psychology
C. Workplace psychology
D. Worker-productivity psychology4. Message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade is called _______ processing.
A. visual
B. central route
C. peripheral route
D. auditory
5. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures _______, and permits a more accurate assessment of people’s attitudes towards members of different groups.
A. discrimination
B. social roles
C. prejudice
D. stereotypes
6. Which statement best expresses the concept of the self-serving bias?
A. We assume that situational causes are brought about by the environment.
B. We attribute our successes to our skills and abilities and our failures to external factors.
C. We tend to think other people are similar to us, even when we first meet them.
D. We nearly always assume that other people’s failures are due to their personal characteristics.
7. A negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members is called a
A. discrimination.
B. prejudice.
C. social role.
D. stereotype
8. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that’s-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining
A. compliance.
B. reciprocity.
C. conformity.
D. obedience.
9. Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is true?
A. Cataclysmic events such as earthquakes are, inevitably, the most devastating stressors for most people.
B. Accumulating hassles may well lead to a sudden onset of PTSD.
C. Continued exposure to stress is associated with the secretion of stress-related hormones.
D. Psychophysiological disorders are primarily mental disorders.
10. The concept of aggression cues is associated with
A. social learning theories.
B. the work of animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz.
C. observational learning theories.
D. frustration-aggression theory.
11. The conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts is called
A. cognitive dissonance.
B. attitude conflict.
C. behavior conflict.
D. behavioral dissonance.
12. A change in behavior in response to the commands of others is known as
A. compliance.
B. obedience.
C. conformity.
D. discrimination
13. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is
A. flight or fight.
B. adaptation.
C. resistance.
D. exhaustion.
14. The process by which an individual organizes information about another person, in order to form an overall impression of that person, is called
A. central traits.
B. schemas.
C. impression formation.
D. social cognition.
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15. In the “teacher-learner” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram, ______ percent of the experimental subjects eventually applied the “lethal” 450-volt shock to the “learner.”
A. 15
B. 65
C. 35
D. 2
16. With respect to the fundamental attribution error, it turns out that in other cultures, like those of Asia, there’s a/an _______ orientation to others that emphasizes interdependence.
A. collectivist
B. philosophical
C. intrapersonal
D. individualistic
17. Behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure is known as
A. conformity.
B. obedience.
C. compliance.
D. social roles.
18. The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself is known as
A. fundamental attribution error.
B. assumed-similarity bias.
C. halo effect.
D. self-serving bias.
19. The major traits considered in forming impressions of others are called
A. impression formation.
B. social cognition.
C. schemas.
D. central traits.
20. Behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group is called
A. stereotype.
B. social role.
C. prejudice.
D. discrimination..