# Research Questions

Question 1 In your own words, define naturalistic ovservation. Discuss examples of when a naturalistic observational study would be the most appropriate design to select. What are two sources of bias during an observation period?Question 2
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following nonexperimental research methods: (a) naturalistic observations, (b) surveys, and (c) correlational studies. If you were asked to use one of these designs in a study next week, which nonexperimental design would you select and why?Assignment answer the 10 queations
1.When is it appropriate for a researcher to use deception in a study? When is it not appropriate? How can the negative effects of deception be minimized?2. Define and describe the six steps of the scientific method. Give an example of each step.3.Compare and contrast the following terms: (a) test-retest reliability with inter-rater reliability, (b) content validity with both predictive validity and construct validity, and (c) internal validity with external validity.4.Contrast probability and nonprobability sampling methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?5. For each of the research topics listed below, indicate the type of nonexperimental approach that would be most useful and explain why.Pushing ahead in line
Daydreaming
Locating the most popular painting in an art gallery
Studiousness in college students
Determining whether a particular patient has improved with psychotherapy.6. Researcher Sandy Beach found a correlation coefficient of +2.3 between variables X and Y. She is thrilled because that correlation is “like, way high.” She also feels that this answer “proves that X is like, causing Y.” What are three problems with Sandy’s conclusions?
Contrast experimental with quasi-experimental methods; generally speaking, which methods are most useful?7. Use Stevens’ model of measurement scales to answer these questions:What type of scale is used when the variable is social class? Explain.
What type of scale is used when the variable studied is a Top 40 list of popular songs? Explain.
What type of scale is used when the variable studied is intelligence scores (for example, on the Stanford-Binet-R)? Explain.8.What type of scale is used when the variables studied are low and normal birth weights of newborns? Explain.9. List the main sections (and subsections) of a research report.10.When designing survey questions, how would you control for each of the following response styles: (a) willingness to answer, (b) position preference, and (c) yea- or nay-saying?