Ram 8

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1. In a study examining preschoolers’ responses to their peers’ distress, researchers used _______ to record each instance in which a child cried, followed by other children’s reactions. A. time sampling B. systematic collection C. event sampling D. structured observation 2. According to Erikson, children learn how to cooperate with others during the _______ stage. A. basic trust versus mistrust B. autonomy versus shame and doubt C. initiative versus guilt D. industry versus inferiority 3. Dr. Muse, a sociocultural theorist, speculates that children’s ability to reminisce about the past can be promoted through adult teaching. This is an example of a A. theory. C. hypothesis. B. research question. D. research method. 4. A criticism of the information-processing approach is that it A. doesn’t form a comprehensive theory. B. lacks scientific research. C. focuses on creativity and imagination, while ignoring other mental processes. D. views children as blank slates. 5. One way to test for the validity of research methods is to A. compare children’s answers to different halves of the same test. B. test for inter-rater reliability. C. compare children’s answers on different forms of the same measure. D. see how effective the measure is in predicting behavior it would reasonably expect to predict. 6. Which of the following statements about the field of child development is correct? A. It’s devoted to understanding human constancy and change over the lifespan. B. It’s part of a larger, interdisciplinary field known as developmental science. C. It focuses primarily on children’s cognitive and social development. D. It studies infants’ perceptions of the world. 7. During the middle of the twentieth century, North American psychology was dominated by A. evolutionary theory. C. neuroscience. B. cognitive development. D. behaviorism. 8. What is a major limitation of the psychophysiological method? A. Investigators can’t be sure that an infant or child has processed a stimulus in a certain way. B. Most physiological procedures can’t be used on infants and children. C. Most physiological procedures require injection of a radioactive substance. D. The nervous system isn’t sensitive to changes in psychological states. 9. British philosopher John Locke viewed the child as A. tainted by original sin. C. a noble savage. B. a tabula rasa. D. an active, purposeful being. 10. In field experiments, researchers A. formulate conclusions based on extensive field notes. B. use treatment conditions that already exist naturally. C. avoid confounding variables by exposing the same participants to all treatments. D. randomly assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings. 11. In ecological systems theory, development is A. primarily influenced by the social transmission of knowledge. B. a result of successful imprinting during the early critical period. C. controlled by both environmental circumstances and inner dispositions. D. neither controlled by environmental circumstances nor inner dispositions. 12. A correlation coefficient can range in value from A. +1.00 to –1.00. C. 0 to +1.00. B. –1.00 to 0. D. –100 to +100. 13. According to Freud, the _______ works to reconcile the demands of the _______ and the _______. A. id; ego; superego B. superego; id; ego C. ego; id; superego D. id; conscience; subconscience 14. What is an advantage of a cross-sectional design? A. Researchers need not be concerned about practice effects. B. Validity isn’t threatened by cohort effects. C. The effects of early experience on later development can be examined. D. It’s an efficient strategy for examining individual development. 15. Research on the importance of early experiences for children’s intellectual development played a major role in the founding of A. the Convention on the Rights of the Child. B. the Children’s Defense Fund. C. Project Head Start. D. the National Association for the Education of Young Children. 16. A Piagetian classroom emphasizes A. adult teaching of basic concepts with the use of repeated tests. B. directly rewarding children for the right answers. C. allowing children to independently work through difficult tasks. D. children’s discovery learning and direct contact with the environment. 17. Ethnographic research is aimed at understanding A. the development of cohorts. B. relationships between early experiences and later behavior. C. children’s mastery of a new skill. D. the cultural meanings of behavior. 18. In studies involving children, the _______ should have the final word in deciding whether they should participate. A. children C. therapists B. researchers D. parents 19. Vygotsky’s theory neglected A. cultural influences on cognitive development. B. the importance of language development. C. the biological side of development. D. the changing nature of cognition.
20. Bandura is unique among learning theorists because he
A.
focused on cultural influences on children’s learning.
B.
granted children an active role in their own learning.
C.
emphasized the role of the unconscious on children’s learning.
D.
believed that children’s learning depends on reinforcers.