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Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points Most insects use external sources of heat to achieve their operative temperature range. Heinrich’s research on the sphinx moth (Manduca sexta) indicates that some insects can thermoregulate by using their flight muscles and: � A. using their blood as a coolant. B. decreasing their metabolic rate. C. possessing an internal respiratory system. D. using a countercurrent heat exchange mechanism. Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points The thermal stability of aquatic environments is a result of the: A. high specific heat of water. B. low latent heat of vaporization of water. C. low latent heat of fusion of water. D. All of the choices are correct. Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points Animals that rely mainly on external sources of energy for regulating body temperature are called: � A. epitherms. B. endotherms. C. ectotherms. D. peritherms. Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points In general, reptiles are considered to be a/an: A. poikilotherm. B. homeotherm. C. endotherm. D. heterotherm. Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points Mammalian and avian aquatic endotherms use all of the following mechanisms to thermoregulate EXCEPT: � A. fat. B. internal respiratory systems. C. fur or feathers. D. concurrent heat exchange. Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points The water availability for organisms is determined by: � A. internal dissolved ion concentrations. B. external dissolved ion concentrations. C. movement of water down its concentration gradient. D. movement of water up its concentration gradient. Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points Aquatic organisms whose ionic concentration of their body fluids exceed that of their surroundings are: � A. hyperosmotic. B. hypoosmotic. C. isoosmotic. D. osmotic. Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points In order to survive in the desert, a camel will employ which of the following mechanisms? � A. Face away from sun B. Store water in its hump C. Shed its fur D. Allow its body temperature to rise Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points Saturation water vapor pressure: � A. increases with temperature. B. decreases with temperature. C. parallels vapor pressure density. D. both increases with temperature and parallels vapor pressure density. Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points A cicada will use which of the following mechanisms in order to survive hot, dry conditions of the desert? � A. Nocturnal behavior B. Burrowing C. Torpor D. Sweating Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points Herbivores, carnivores, and detritivores are all: � A. omnivores. B. autotrophs. C. heterotrophs. D. animals. Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points Which kingdom has the higher carbon to nitrogen ratios? � A. Plantae B. Animalia C. Monera D. Fungi Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points The main force in the development and refinement of prey defenses is/are: � A. nutrition. B. predators. C. the prey themselves. D. mate choices. Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points Several studies indicate that environmental conditions dictate plant biomass allocation; plants grown in infertile soils will allocate more energy into __________ biomass. � A. leaf B. stem C. root D. flower Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points Organisms which synthesize organic compounds using CO2 as a carbon source and inorganic chemicals as an energy source are: � A. chemosynthetic heterotrophs. B. chemosynthetic autotrophs. C. photosynthetic autotrophs. D. photosynthetic heterotrophs. Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points Fitness is defined as the: � A. health of an individual organism. B. ability of an organism to adapt to new environmental situations. C. quality of offspring produced. D. number of genes contributed by an individual to the next generation. Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points Secondary sexual characteristics are often considered a handicap because of increased: � A. predation. B. competition. C. parasitism. D. infertility. Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points An instance of __________ selection occurs when the plumage of male birds becomes increasingly brighter over time. � A. contrasexual B. intrasexual C. intersexual D. multisexual Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points Sociality is generally NOT accompanied by: � A. cooperative feeding. B. defense of the social group. C. unlimited reproductive opportunities. D. restricted reproductive opportunities. Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points When investigating haplodiploidy, all of the following statements were found to be true EXCEPT: � A. siblings are more genetically related than an individual’s own offspring. B. males have one set of chromosomes. C. kin selection is not implicated. D. males develop from unfertilized eggs.

 

Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points Locally adapted and genetically distinctive populations within a species are referred to as: � A. heterotypes. B. metatypes. C. genotypes. D. ecotypes. Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points Within a population, if the average is selected for and the two opposing extremes are selected against, this is an example of __________ selection. � A. directional B. disruptive C. stabilizing D. natural Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points Over time, average phenotypes become less common and the population becomes phenotypically more diverse as a result of __________ selection. � A. bimodal B. directional C. disruptive D. stabilizing Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points Molecular biology has helped scientists examine the genetics and evolution of different species. Which of the following sequences is correctly ordered? � A. Restriction fragments, restriction enzymes, PCR, electrophoresis B. PCR, restriction enzymes, restriction fragments, electrophoresis C. Restriction enzymes, PCR, electrophoresis, restriction fragments D. PCR, electrophoresis, restriction enzymes, restriction fragments Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points All of the following conditions are included in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle EXCEPT: � A. no mutation. B. non-random mating. C. large population size. D. no immigration. Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points __________ is/are defined as a group of potentially breeding organisms within a species in a given space and time. � A. Density B. Abundance C. Distribution D. Populations Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points Whittaker’s research on North American tree distribution examined __________ gradients and concluded that the tree distribution was __________. � A. temperature; random B. temperature; clumped C. moisture; clumped D. moisture; random Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points In order to determine whether a species is common or rare, ecologists use all of the following criteria EXCEPT: � A. habitat tolerance. B. evolutionary existence. C. geographical range. D. local population size. Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points The rarest animal is the __________ and the rarest plant is the __________. � A. Northern spotted owl; Pacific Yew B. Siberian tiger; Asplenium septrionale C. Tasmanian devil; Welwitschia D. Mountain gorilla; Prichardia Monroe Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points Rarity I can be described by the following indicators: � A. restricted range, narrow habitat tolerances, and small local populations. B. restricted range, broad habitat tolerances, and large local populations. C. extensive range, narrow habitat tolerances, and large local populations. D. extensive range, broad habitat tolerances, and small local populations. Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following word pairs are mismatched? � A. Random distribution: aggressive interaction B. Clumped distribution: attraction to a common source C. Regular distribution: antagonistic behaviors D. Large scale distribution: substantial environmental changes Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is mismatched? � A. Eastern grey kangaroo: temperate and tropical forest B. Western grey kangaroo: little seasonal variation in precipitation C. Red kangaroo: savanna and desert D. Western kangaroo: temperate woodland and shrubland Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points The Type I survivorship curve indicates: � A. low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults. B. high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults. C. low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults. D. high juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults. Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points Humans would best be represented by which of the following survivorships curves? � A. I B. II C. III D. IV Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points The age distribution of a population can reveal: � A. growth potential. B. survivorship. C. reproduction. D. growth potential, survivorship, and reproduction. Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points A group of subpopulations living in spatially isolated patches connected by exchange of individuals among patches is called a(n): � A. micropopulation. B. megapopulation. C. isopopulation. D. metapopulation. Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following indicates a population in decline? � A. R0=6.01 B. R0=0.601 C. R0=0 D. R0= – 0.601 Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points Out of 1 million eggs laid by a mackerel, more than 999,990 die during the first 70 days of life either as eggs, larvae, or juveniles. The mackerel has a __________ survivorship curve. � A. Type I B. Type II C. Type III D. Type IV Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following equations bests represents the per capita rate of increase? � A. r = T/(ln R0) B. r = (ln R0)/T C. l = Nt/( Nt+1) D. l = (Nt+1)/Nt Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points Type II survivorship curve indicates: � A. low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults. B. high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults. C. low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults. D. equal chance of dying at any age. �

Question 1 of 20 5.0 Points Nt = N0 lt represents: � A. annual growth rate. B. geometric population growth. C. exponential growth rate. D. logistic growth. Question 2 of 20 5.0 Points An annual plant when initially colonizing an area will probably demonstrate: � A. annual growth rate. B. geometric population growth. C. exponential growth rate. D. logistic growth. Question 3 of 20 5.0 Points The exponential population growth equation can be used for: � A. populations with overlapping generations. B. populations experiencing continuous growth. C. populations with nonpulsed reproduction. D. all of the populations listed above. Question 4 of 20 5.0 Points Density dependent factors include all of the following EXCEPT: � A. competition. B. disease. C. predation. D. temperature. Question 5 of 20 5.0 Points Human populations are clumped on a large scale with the greatest concentration in: � A. Africa. B. Asia. C. Europe. D. North America. Question 6 of 20 5.0 Points If the age distribution diagram is bottom heavy or pyramidal in shape, this indicates that the population is: � A. stable. B. declining. C. growing slowly. D. growing rapidly. Question 7 of 20 5.0 Points If the age distribution diagram is bell shaped or the number of individual in each age class is evenly distributed, this indicates that the population is: � A. stable. B. declining. C. growing slowly. D. growing rapidly. Question 8 of 20 5.0 Points If the age distribution diagram has the smallest concentration of individuals in the bottom portion or is considered to be an urn shape, this indicates that: � A. the population is stable. B. the population is declining. C. the population is growing slowly. D. the population is growing rapidly. Question 9 of 20 5.0 Points A polymorphic locus is one that: � A. codes for more than one protein. B. codes for both protein and lipid. C. occurs in a population as more than one allele. D. occurs on more than one chromosome. Question 10 of 20 5.0 Points The number of eggs laid by a female is called her: � A. fertility. B. gonadosomatic index. C. growth form. D. fecundity. Question 11 of 20 5.0 Points A “forb” is a(n): � A. fish species living in the open ocean. B. bird species having offspring independent at a young age. C. plant species with woody tissue. D. herbaceous, but non-graminoid, plant species. Question 12 of 20 5.0 Points The “K” in “K-selection” comes from the: � A. ecologist who coined it, Astrid Kodric-Brown. B. shape of the age-vs.-mortality-rate plot for K-selected species. C. “K” in the logistic growth equation. D. Greek letter “kappa,” symbolizing fecundity. Question 13 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following is NOT a characteristic favored by K-selection? � A. Low intrinsic rate of increase B. Late reproduction C. Many, small offspring D. Repeated bouts of reproduction Question 14 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following environments for germinating seed is most likely to favor a plant species that makes many small seeds, compared to one that makes fewer larger seeds? � A. Nutrient limitation B. Competition from established plants C. Shade D. Disturbance Question 15 of 20 5.0 Points “Riparian” refers to plant communities occurring: � A. in the tropics. B. at high altitudes. C. along the edges of deserts. D. in transitions between riverbanks and upland areas. Question 16 of 20 5.0 Points The study of the relationship between climate and the timing of ecological events is called: � A. ecology. B. phenology. C. oenology. D. climatology. Question 17 of 20 5.0 Points __________ show more variation in life history traits than any other group. � A. Insects B. Mammals C. Birds D. Fish Question 18 of 20 5.0 Points Turner and Trexler found a __________ relationship between egg size and __________ in the darter populations that live in rivers and streams of central North America. � A. positive; gene flow B. positive; egg number C. positive; female size D. negative; gene flow Question 19 of 20 5.0 Points Westoby, Leishman, and Lord found that on average, __________ produce the largest seeds. � A. forbs B. woody plants C. climbing plants and vines D. graminoids Question 20 of 20 5.0 Points Which of the following are characteristics favored by K selection? � A. Rapid development B. Small body size C. Iteroparity D. High rmax �