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Question 1
Children who are defined as exceptional are children who are
above the norm below the norm both above the norm and below the normal children are exceptional
Question 2
Multi finality refers to the observation that
various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings developmental pathways may converge at the end the same disorder may have different causes different disorders may stem from similar caues
Question 3
The study of child psychopathology differs from the study of adult psychopathology in that Answer
treatment for a child’s but not an adult’s psychopathology centers on restoring previous functioning. The study of child and adult psychopathology does not have any differences only an adult’s psychopathology indicates a difference in previous functioning the causes of a child’s psychopathology is different than the cause of an adult’s psychopathology
Question 4
Psychological disorders are defined as patterns of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms, which are associated with

Answer
distress disability all of these
increased risk for further suffering
Question 5
Which statement is TRUE about sex differences and mental health problems in children? Answer
Sex differences in problem behaviors show up by early infancy Boys show greater difficulties than girls starting in early adolescence Boys’ externalizing problems start out higher than girls in the preschool years Anxiety disorders are more common in boys than girls
Question 6
Differential diagnosis refers to
having more than one disorder the cause of the disorder ruling out a disorder that may have similar symptoms as another disorder how commonly the disorder is found in the general population
Question 7
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the lifespan implications of having a mental health problem in childhood?
Few children continue to have psychological problems in adulthood, because most children are resilient Childhood psychopathology contributes to demands for education and criminal justice resources and repeated interventions for many years after the diagnosis Children with mental health problems are more likely to drop out of high school and have social problems. The children most likely to face long-term consequences of mental health problems are those who have severe or untreated cases of psychopathology
Question 8
Which statement is TRUE about ethnicity and mental health problems in children?
Minority children in the U.S. are overrepresented in rates of some disorders Ethnic representation in research studies has received a great deal of attention in studies of child psychopathology Even with SES controlled for, many differences emerge in relation to race Minority children and youth do not face any more disadvantages in life than other children
Question 9
Why is culture important in studying exceptional children?

Answer
Culture affects the way children express their disorderCulture influences the way the child responds to treatment and thus the outcomes of the disorderAll disorders are equally influenced by cultureThe first two statements are correctAll statements are correct
Question 10
What is a risk factor?

Answer
A variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest
A variable that increases the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur
Both of the statements are correctNone of the statements are correct
Question 11
What is the best explanation as to why more children of a young age are being diagnosed with mental health problems today compared to years ago?

Answer
Clinicians use less stringent criteria in determining whether young children meet the diagnostic criteria for a disorderParents are busier today and thus have less time to discipline children’s behavior problems thus leading to an increase likelihood of mental health issuesAn increase in the percentage of children with healthcare coverage has led to more children seeking treatment and thus being diagnosed with problemsGreater awareness that mental health problems do occur among young children
Question 12
Which results would NOT support the idea that genes play a significant role in behavior?

Answer
The finding that children are more similar to their biological parents than to their adoptive parentsThe finding that monozygotic twins are more similar than dizygotic twinsThe finding that dizygotic twins are more similar than monozygotic twinsResults that indicate similarities between biological siblings
Question 13
The part of the brain that regulates our emotional experiences, expressions, impulses, and basic drives is the

Answer
hindbrain
basal ganglia
limbic system
hypothalamus

Question 14
The behavioral model of psychopathology proposed that problem behavior develops through a process of Answer
reinforcement paired stimulus and responseimitation

All of the above
Question 15
After studying his history, Nico is excused from having to wash the dishes, a task he detests. Nico’s parents are attempting to use _____ to increase Nico’s studying.Answer
negative reinforcement
positive reinforcement
extinction
punishment

Question 16
The frontal lobe is responsible for Answer
processing visual informationmemoryhigher order thinkingperception of touch and pain
Question 17
In the Strange Situation procedure, an infant who responds to his mother’s return by reaching out to her, then angrily protesting when she picks him up, would be characterized as Answer
insecure-resistant insecure-disorganized insecure-avoidant secure
Question 18
Dr Cavanaugh believes that most all types of psychopathology stem from difficulties in controlling ones emotions. Dr. Cavanaugh can be said to a supporter of which of the following perspectives in exceptional childhood? (obj 7)

Answer
affective
psychological
social/cultural
biological

Question 19
__________ explain the acquisition of problem behavior on the basis of paired associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g., homework), and unconditioned stimuli (e.g., parental anger).

Answer
Social learning models
Operant models
Classical conditioning models
Social cognition models
Question 20
Which of the following statements about neural development is false?

Answer
The connections in the brain are relatively pre-determined and the environment cannot change their courseMost developing axons reach their destination even before a baby is bornPrimitive areas of the brain develop firstSynapses both proliferate and disappear in early childhood
Question 21
The family-systems approach argues that

Answer
The cause of a child’s psychopathology is best understood by examining the functioning of the family as a unit instead of each individual member of the familyRelationships with siblings are the major focus in examining the causes of a child’s psychopathologyAll of the aboveIndividual family members are the cause of the child’s psychopathology
Question 22
____________ has been implicated in several psychological disorders, especially those connected to a person’s response to stress.

Answer
Dopamine
BZ-GABA
The HPA axis
Norepinephrine
Question 23
________________ describes the “slow-to-warm-up child”, who is cautious in approaching novel or challenging situations.

Answer
Adaptive with negative mood
Fearful or inhibited
Negative affect or irritability
Positive affect and approach

Question 24
A child who cannot control his temper has problems in emotion ________.


Answer
sensitivity.
reactivity.
deregulation.
regulation.
Question 25
__________ increases the chance that characteristics other than the independent variable will be equally distributed across treatment groups.


Answer
Natural assignment
Random selection.
Equal distribution
Random assignment
Question 26
A limitation of psychophysiological measures is

Answer
poor inter-rater reliability
high level of inference for interpretation
deception by the child
inappropriateness with young children
Question 27
After getting several parents to agree to participate in a study, a researcher has the parents report on the depressive behaviors of their children now and every two years from now for 10 years. This type of study can best be described as a ________ study which has a problem with ________.

Answer
retrospective; memory biases
prospective; memory biases
prospective; loss of participants
retrospective; loss of participants
Question 28
The greater the degree of control that a researcher has over the _____________, the more a study approximates a true experiment.

Answer
moderator variables
independent variable
subjects in the sample
dependent variable
Question 29
A psychologist designs an experiment to determine the effect of eye contact on children’s smiling. Group 1 is exposed to ten eye contacts during the session while Group 2 is exposed to zero eye contacts during the session. The psychologist record the number of times the children in each group smile. In the study, the

Answer
Number of eye contacts is the dependent variableNone of the above statements are trueNumber of eye contacts is the independent variableNumber of smiles by the children is the independent variableQuestion 30
When doing research into the causes of childhood psychopathology there are three specific concerns you must take into consideration. Which one of the following is one of these concerns?


Answer
creating a precise definition of the psychopathology being studied.
ensuring that it contains a representative sample of gender, race, and SES.
obtaining an informed consent from parents instead of the child.
recruiting only people that are eligible to participate in the study.
Question 31
A correlation of -.75 between age and amount of time spent in REM sleep means that

Answer
older people spend less time in REM sleep
older people spend more time in REM sleep
the relationship between age and time spent in REM sleep is weak
younger people spend less time in REM sleep
Question 32
Professor King studies the dating behaviors of young adults by bringing them into a room that is set up like a bar and hosting a party. Through a one-way mirror, she observes how many times each guy flirts with a girl. Dr. King’s method would best be described as a(n)

Answer
survey
naturalistic observation
standardized test
structured observation
Question 33
Which of the following statements about case studies is FALSE? 

Answer
are rich in detail and provide valuable insights
involve intensive observation and analysis of an individual child
usually study rare childhood disorders
use controlled methods without biases

Question 34
Michael studies developmental differences in extroversion by
testing 9-, 19-, 39-, and 59-year-old subjects all at the same timeMichael is performing a _____ study.

Answer
cross-sectional
experimental
sequential
longitudinal

Question 35
Omar decides to use a longitudinal design to assess cognitive development in adolescence. Which one of the following is a major problem for Omar?

Answer
Having enough time and money to complete the projectIt gives no information about how people changeA variable is assessed all at the same timeThe ability to measure change within an individual
Question 36
Emily’s mother was asked to complete a behavior checklist on two separate occasions several weeks apart. The results yielded from both occasions were very similar. The behavior checklist can be said to have good

Answer
test-retest reliability
face validity
face reliability
test-retest validity

Question 37
When studying the nature and distribution of childhood disorders _______ can tell us the number of new cases of the disorder there are in a certain time frame.

Answer
studies of correlates and risks
incidence rate studies
efficacy studies
prevalence rate studies

Question 38
According to the DSM-IV-TR, developmental disorders, like mental retardation, would be classified on

Answer
Axis IAxis IVAxis IIAxis III
Question 39
Dr. Lance is a psychotherapist who frequently argues with her clients. She tries to get them to confront their irrational beliefs. She often contradicts what they say, telling them to think about things from a different perspective. Dr. Lance is most likely

Answer
A humanistic therapist
A psychodynamic therapist
A cognitive therapist
A client-centered therapist

Question 40
When trying to describe a child’s problem, one can use the ___________ classification approach which assumes that all children possess the same traits to varying degrees.

Answer
trait
dimensional
categorical
feature

Question 41
An assessment technique in which parents, teachers, or the child is asked to rate the frequency and intensity of certain behaviors and then results are compared to a known reference group is referred to as a

Answer
behavioral analysis
personality testchecklist
behavioral recording

Question 42
Intelligence tests can be used for all, BUT which of the following purposes


Answer
to determine one’s mental state.
to assess for evidence of a traumatic brain injury.
to assess how logically one thinks.
to assess one’s personality.

Question 43
The DSM-IV is criticized for all of the following reasons except

Answer
the DSM-IV allows for multiple diagnosesdoesn’t take into account situational and contextual factorsin some cases can result in children not getting the services they needuses rigid and often arbitrary descriptions of symptoms as criteria for disorders
Question 44
Semi-structured interviews tend to be _______________ than unstructured interviews.

Answer
more spontaneous
less reliable
more consistent and less spontaneous
less consistent

Question 45
The detailed representation of the individual child or family as a unique entity is referred to as a(n) ___________ case formulation.

Answer
idiographic
diagnostic
nomothetic
prognostic

Question 46
A type of test in which children are shown ambiguous images and are asked to describe the image is referred to as a(n)

Answer
projective testmeasure of the Big 5 personality traitsclinical interviewnomothetic analysis
Question 47
___________ refers to efforts to increase adherence with treatment over time to prevent reoccurrence.

Answer
Maintenance
Treatment
Prevention
Intervention

Question 48
Dr. Murphy is a psychotherapist who is nonjudgmental and extremely supportive of her clients. She encourages them to talk through their concerns, and she serves as a sounding board as her clients come to recognize their own self worth. Dr. Murphy is most likely a _______ psychologist.

Answer
psychodynamic
client centered
cognitive
behavioral

Question 49
Neuropsychological assessments are primarily used to

Answer
identify underlying brain lesions
make inferences about central nervous system dysfunction
diagnose mental deficits
identify genetic abnormalities

Question 50
Which of the following is not true of the meta-analytic findings of research therapy with children?

Answer
Treatment effects tend to be lasting Treatments have been shown to be more effective for internalizing than for externalizing disorders
Changes achieved by children receiving treatment are greater than those for children not receiving treatment
Treatment effects are larger for problems that are specifically targeted than they are for nonspecific areas of functioning