Exam: 350606RR – The Mind at Work
1. The initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant is called _______ memory.
2. According to information provided in your text, circadian rhythms are associated with
A. the occurrence of anxiety attacks.
B. the time of month that pregnant women are likely to go into labor.
C. attacks of sleep apnea.
D. cycles of waking and sleeping.
3. While talking to Jim, Mary recalled that his birthday is ***** Mary wished him a happy birthday.
What type of memory did Mary exhibit?
4. You want to condition a pet pig to come running for a food reward when you blow a whistle. In the process of this conditioning effort, the main idea is to
A. teach the pig to expect food when it’s hungry.
B. pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
C. teach the pig to pay attention to the sound of a whistle.
D. pair a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
5. Professor Dore maintains that language develops through the interplay of genetically determined factors and environmental influences that shape how language is learned. Professor Dore supports the
A. interaction approach to language development.
B. nativist approach to language development.
C. learning theory approach to language development.
D. linguistic-relativity hypothesis.
6. Knowing that Dr. Mallet, a clinical psychologist, is interested in the latent and manifest content of his client’s dreams, it’s safest to suspect that Dr. Mallet embraces _______ theory.
A. unconscious wish-fulfillment
7. Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences, is called _______conditioning.
8. Sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that are accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong
psychological arousal are called
A. terror episodes.
B. night terrors.
D. manic episodes.
9. You help Cameron learn to play a guitar by guiding him through a sequence of reinforced behaviors,
such as holding the guitar, tuning the guitar, and properly fingering simple chords. In the operant conditioning perspective, this is called
B. latent learning.
C. graded reinforcement.
D. gradual reinforcement.
10. The _______ theory says that dreams permit information that’s critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep.
B. survival instinct
D. wish fulfillment
11. I reward your behavior after I observe you correctly following a product assembly procedure six times.
In operant conditioning, this kind of partial reinforcement is based on a _______ schedule.
12. Trying to make sense of an article in the world events section of the Daily Mirror, Matlock turns to Thomas and asks, “Where’s Khartoum?” Thomas, looking up from his coffee, says, “Africa. It’s the capital of Sudan.” If you hold with the idea that long-term memory includes distinct modules, what sort of memory does Thomas’ reply indicate?
13. Classical conditioning is based on the observations of
A. Sigmund Freud.
B. Ivan Pavlov.
C. ***** *****.
14. In _______ theory, the actual wishes that are threatening to the dreamer’s conscious awareness are disguised.
B. latent content
C. manifest content
D. unconscious wish fulfillment
15. The maintenance of material saved in memory is called
16. Responding to stimuli that are similar—but not identical—to a conditioned stimulus is called
A. respondent reinforcement.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. stimulus discrimination.
D. stimulus generalization.
17. Methadone can be used to treat heroin addiction. However, the main drawback in this sort of treatment is that methadone
A. is biologically addictive.
B. provides the same sort of “high” the addict experiences with heroin.
C. is very expensive to produce, since it’s derived from rare tropical plants.
D. is psychologically addictive.
18. After Kate’s visit to Paris, her memories about what she saw and learned were influenced by music in the background, by the comments of her traveling companion, and by the light reflecting off the Seine, reminding Kate of her childhood home on the banks of the Wabash. Psychologists would say Kate’s memories of Paris are influenced by the meanings she gave to aspects of her experience through
A. episodic memory.
B. constructive processes.
C. implicit memories.
D. Flashbulb memories.
19. After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took was
20. under which stage of sleep are people least responsive to outside stimulation?
A. Stage 4
B. Stage 2
C. Stage 3
D. Stage 1