18. When looking at ethnic differences in parenting, the following cultures tend to be group oriented, and they emphasize interdependence among individuals.
19. When a toddler uses simple two-word sentences to communicate, it is referred to as _________.
20. The stage during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated is labeled as Piaget’s _____ stage of cognitive development. (Points : 2)
21. In Lawrence Kohlberg’s research on moral development, reasoning that is based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted authority, rules, and values is labeled the ______ level. (Points : 2)
22. Carol Gilligan pointed out that existing studies on moral development are biased because (Points : 2)
different races were not studied.
children were disregarded.
a woman’s concern with relatives can look like a weakness rather than a strength.
only males participated in the studies.
23. How many stages is the life cycle are presented in Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development? (Points : 2)
24. In life-span developmental theories, adolescents struggle with conflicts involving _____. (Points : 2)
the need to form a consistent identity.
the ability to trust the primary caregivers in their lives
the development of intimate relationships
the ability to look back at life with a sense of integrity
25. According to Carol Ryff, all of the following are associated with well-being during adulthood except (Points : 2)
a purpose in life.
a critical review of one’s life.
26. Children who are rebellious and aggressive are often the products of which of the following styles of discipline? (Points : 2)
withdrawal of love
27. In which of Kubler-Ross’s stages would someone who feels exhausted and has a sense of futility be? (Points : 2)
28. After being awake for more than 60 hours, a person may develop hallucinations and delusional thinking in a state called (Points : 2)
sleep deprivation psychosis.
29. In which stages of sleep would a person be most difficult to wake? (Points : 2)
30. The bulk of people’s dreams occur during _____. (Points : 2)
stage 4, deep sleep
stage 2, light sleep
31. Which of the following is true of NREM sleep? (Points : 2)
It may help the body recover from bodily fatigue.
Breathing becomes irregular.
NREM sleep is marked by rapid EEG patterns.
Dreams are more vivid and emotional during NREM.
32. A hereditary problem in which the victim has irresistible “sleep attacks” in the day is called (Points : 2)
REM behavior disorder.
excessive daytime sleepiness.
33. Freud’s psychodynamic theory of dreaming emphasizes _____. (Points : 2)
dreams as sensations, motor commands, and memories that are synthesized by the cortex of the brain
dreams as internal psychic abilities that provide insight into the future
dreams as internal conflicts and unconscious forces that are based on wish fulfillment
dreams as a form of hypnosis
34. Stimulants _____ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _____ it. (Points : 2)
35. The life expectancy of the average cigarette smoker is reduced by (Points : 2)
1 – 5 years
5 – 10 years
10 – 15 years
15 – 20 years
36. The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior is known as _____. (Points : 2)
37. In classical conditioning, _____ are important, while in operant conditioning, _____ are primary for learning. (Points : 2)