HUI 27.doc

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14. ___Positive reinforcement_______________________________ follows a response and increases the frequency of a behavior.
15. Two types of reinforcement are __positive___________________ & __negative__________________.
16. ___positive___________________ reinforcement increases the frequency of behavior when it is applied; it is something pleasant.
17. __negative____________________ reinforcement increases the frequency of behavior when it is removed; it is something unpleasant.
18. _reward____________________________________________________ is an example of positive reinforcement.
19. __punishment___________________________________________________ is an example of negative reinforcement.
20. __rewards___________________ and positive reinforcement can be used interchangeably.
21. Punishment __decreases a behavior ____________________________________.
22. Examples of punishments include: __positive_________________________ & __negative__________________________.
23. An application of operant conditioning is ___shaping____________________ which is reinforcing approximations of desired behavior.
24. __chaining_________________________ is used to reinforce a sequence of events and is often used to train animals to do a series of complex behaviors.
25. Operant conditioning can also be used as a part of ___social learning or education_________________ where a teacher would use positive reinforcements to elicit appropriate behavior.
26. Cognitive forms of learning include __observational_______________________ learning, _latent_______________________ learning & ___trial&error_______________________ learning.
27. Give examples of the following:
latent learning: learning song lyrics without realizing it _________
observational learning: a boy watches his father hit his mother then grows up to hit his wife or girlfriend_____________________
trial & error learning: __a child wants her parent to buy her a treat, the parent refuses, the child throws a temper tantrum and the parent buys the treat to stop the tantrum – the child has learned that a temper tantrum causes her parent to change a decision _
28. Developed by Francis Robinson the _SQ3R_________________ Method states that individuals must take an active approach to learning.