1. In Mexico, the expression Porfiriato refers to
A. the revolution of 1911 that overthrew Diaz.
B. the oppressive rule of Porfirio Diaz.
C. any kind of authoritarian political oppression.
D. the end of the political dominance of the PRI in July 2000.

2. For geographers, the movement of higher-income residents and businesses into poor areas of inner cities is generally referred to as
A. urban development.
B. restoration.
C. gentrification.
D. urban revitalization.

3. _______ refers to a series of vertical zones with distinctive climate and vegetation regimes.
A. Altitudinal zonation
B. Temperature inversions
C. Sedimentation
D. Urban expanses

4. The Alternative for the Americas agreement of the early 2000s is primarily aimed at
A. excluding the United States from Latin America.
B. inviting foreign investment from Asia.
C. improving ties with the European Union.
D. creating a Latin American Union.

5. Which of the following is the primary subsistence crop in Latin America?
A. Beans
B. Corn
C. Wheat
D. Potatoes

6. In the South American Andes, the altiplano between the Cordillera Oriental and the western Cordillera Occidental is widest in
A. Chile.
B. Ecuador.
C. Peru.
D. Bolivia.

7. In the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and Jamaica are islands of the
A. Lesser Antilles.
B. Leeward Islands.
C. Windward Islands.
D. Greater Antilles.

8. Significant settlement in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta
A. occurred only as major highways were built across Canada.
B. followed the completion of Canada’s transcontinental railways.
C. occurred only after World War II.
D. was a response to the world demand for wheat in the early twentieth century.

9. Immigration currently accounts for about _______ of U.S. population growth.
A. a quarter
B. three-quarters
C. one-half
D. one-third

10. To avoid risks associated with tornadoes, lightning, and hurricanes, in the United States you should steer clear of
A. Pennsylvania.
B. Florida.
C. Nevada.
D. Minnesota.

11. The _______ were responsible for the forced migration of more people from Africa than any other colonial power.
A. Spanish
B. Dutch
C. Portuguese
D. British

12. Regarding tropical rainforests, the term evapotranspiration refers to the fact that
A. deforestation causes a decline in atmospheric oxygen.
B. the humidity of rain forests can produce local and regional precipitation.
C. deforestation causes a loss of soil fertility due to water evaporation.
D. trees absorb carbon dioxide and “exhale” oxygen.

13. Which of the following states is considered part of the Corn Belt?
A. Iowa
B. Texas
C. Alabama
D. Oregon

14. In the 1950s, 40 percent of the U.S. workforce was engaged in manufacturing. By the 2000s, fewer than ________ percent of U.S. workers were employed in manufacturing.
A. 15
B. 5
C. 1
D. 7

15. In the United States, as of 2009, which of the following was the largest and fastest-growing immigrant group?
A. Hispanics
B. Asians
C. Eastern Europeans and Russians
D. Western Europeans

16. Which of the following is the primary aim of the Parti Québécois?
A. Improving economic opportunities for French-speaking Canadians
B. Garnering higher income from the operation of the St. Lawrence Seaway
C. Establishing Quebec as an independent country
D. Secession from Canada in order to become a Department of France

17. _______ is one of the first Latin American countries to have a separate ministry of tourism with dedicated funds within its federal governmental structure.
A. Guatemala
B. Mexico
C. Chile
D. Paraguay

18. Among the northern Andean countries strongly involved in the illegal coca and drug trade, __________ is now the predominant coca producer.
A. Ecuador
B. Peru
C. Bolivia
D. Colombia

19. Two U.S. West Coast ports are world ports that connect the United States and Asian markets. They’re Los Angeles/Long Beach and
A. San Francisco.
B. Portland.
C. Seattle.
D. San Diego.

20. In the post-industrial era, an edge city is a/an
A. complex of warehouses, shopping malls, and offices located along traffic routes.
B. merger of several residential suburbs into one entity.
C. urbanized development that is an extension of a megalopolis.
D. large suburban development mainly occupied by commuters.