Multiple Choice Answers

1. Athletes learn to fear failure in which circumstance(s)?
a. when their performance is emphasized, not their learning and attitude
b. when their goals are realistic and sometimes challenging
c. when they are motivated by self-satisfaction and not by extrinsic rewards
d. all of these
e. a and b

2. What coaching approach probably creates the greatest anxiety among athletes?
a. using a variety of drills and activities
b. setting realistic yet challenging goals
c. giving a pep talk to athletes with low motivation
d. neglecting to specify team goals
e. creating uncertainty about who will start the next game

3. Athletes who think like losers generally
a. blame others for their failure
b. take credit for their success
c. put forth maximum effort
d. attribute their failure to lack of ability
e. none of these

4. Feeling competent is an example of an intrinsic reward.
a. true
b. false

5. Keeping athletes involved and challenged will help them experience optimal activation.
a. true
b. false

6. When athletes perform poorly, they lack motivation.
a. true
b. false

4. What should a coach do for athletes of varying physical maturity in a sport that involves speed, power, and strength?
a. Match athletes based on their age.
b. Match athletes based on their height.
c. Match athletes based on their physical size and ability and their apparent physical maturity.
d. Match athletes based on their speed.
e. all of these

2. What best describes a positive approach to communicating with athletes?
a. It emphasizes praise and reward, and it can include punishment.
b. Athletes are not punished for misbehavior.
c. It consists of equal parts encouragement and discouragement.
d. It is the hallmark of a command-style coach.
e. It requires all messages to be compliments.

4. A running back fumbles the ball, and his coach yells, “You must have grease on your hands!” What best describes the coach’s message?
a. It is low in information and high in judgment.
b. It is high in information and low in judgment.
c. It is high in information and high in credibility.
d. It is low in credibility and high in information.
e. It is high in credibility and low in negativity.
5. Which characteristic is NOT a category of nonverbal communication?
a. voice characteristics
b. body motion
c. physical characteristics
d. touching behavior
e. purpose of the message
1. Typically, who enforces the consequences for violations of team rules?
a. the athletic administrator
b. the coach
c. the coach and the team captains
d. the team
e. the coach and the team

2. Nonverbal communication is generally ineffective in promoting self-control among athletes.
a. true
b. false

3. Team rules should be stated in positive terms.
a. true
b. false

4. Team routines should be
a. as specific as possible
b. determined by the coach and the team
c. determined solely by the coach
d. consistent and unchanging
e. a and c

5. Athletes who play for intrinsic rewards seldom maintain the long-term motivation needed for success in sport.
a. true
b. false

6. An athlete engages in some minor misbehavior. How should the coach respond to the athlete’s misbehavior?
a. If the athlete is misbehaving in order to get the coach’s attention, attend to the athlete immediately.
b. Avoid a public confrontation if possible, remove the athlete from practice or competition, and address the misbehavior privately.
c. Remind the athlete that his misbehavior reflects not only on his athletic performance but also on his personal character.
d. Verbally correct the athlete, and ensure that other members of the team can hear what is said.
e. Set an example by removing the athlete from the team.


1. By emphasizing direct instruction, and in comparison to the games approach, what advantage does the traditional approach to coaching provide?
a. the most effective learning of mental skills and tactics
b. shorter practices
c. less discipline in learning technical skills
d. quicker development of technical skills early in the season
e. creation of a strong coach-athlete bond

2. Completing a full shoulder turn when hitting a golf ball is a technique.
a. true
b. false

3. To increase the athletes’ participation and active learning time in a basketball scrimmage, the coach has three athletes play on each team. The coach’s approach is an example of what?
a. guided discovery
b. shaping play
c. a directed scrimmage
d. enhancing play
e. focusing play
1. To perform complex technical skills, athletes use mental blueprints that guide the specific movements of their performance.
a. true
b. false

2. What are the three stages of learning?
a. mental, physical, and practice
b. mental, physical, and emotional
c. mental, practice, and automatic
d. mental, practice, and performance
e. mental, performance, and automatic

3. Most technical skills performed in high school sports involve a variety of body movements and positions, such as a golf swing. Given this fact, what is the most effective way to teach and practice most of these technical skills?
a. Teach the whole skill, practice its parts, and practice the whole skill.
b. Teach the parts of the skill, and practice the parts.
c. Teach the whole skill, and practice the whole skill.
d. Teach the preparation phase, and practice the action and follow-through phases.
e. Teach the preparation and follow-through phases, and practice the action phase.

4. During practice, substituting for an athlete and providing him with corrective feedback individually on the sidelines is effective, positive coaching.
a. true
b. false

5. What is the most effective way to provide feedback to an athlete?
a. Provide generalized positive feedback instead of technical instruction.
b. When she makes several technical errors, correct only one error at a time.
c. Wait to provide feedback until the end of practice.
d. Allow only coaches to provide feedback at practices.
e. Avoid telling her what specifically she did incorrectly
1. Why is occasional feedback probably effective with more skilled athletes?
a. It encourages them to overanalyze situations.
b. It provides them with more of the coach’s solutions to problems.
c. It helps them become independent decision makers.
d. It provides them with more feedback when their performances are in acceptable ranges.
e. a and b

2. What coaching approach is especially effective in teaching athletes how to respond to changing game situations?
a. focusing on technical skills, not on tactical skills
b. frequent questioning of athletes while they’re playing
c. observing other athletes make decisions
d. controlling feedback
e. variable practice

3. One example of tactical knowledge is how physical playing conditions affect a team’s play.
a. true
b. false

4. When a coach decreases her feedback and explains why, athletes likely will begin to overanalyze their performances.
a. true
b. false

5. The tactical decisions athletes make should have no effect on how well they play.
a. true
b. false
1. Which source would likely be most effective in helping a coach identify which skills she should teach?
a. parents
b. inexperienced athletes
c. officials
d. more experienced coaches, including opposing coaches, who are willing to mentor a young coach
e. c and d

2. Instructional plans are NOT necessary for youth coaches or experienced high school coaches?
a. true
b. false

3. An athlete’s poor communication skills may limit his learning and performance.
a. true
b. false

4. Which athlete skills should be evaluated in the preseason?
a. only offensive skills
b. only defensive skills
c. only advanced skills
d. only specialty skills
e. only essential skills the athletes can safely perform

5. The mental skills that athletes learn are affected by the mental skills that their coaches demonstrate.
a. true
b. false

6. In the first few weeks of practice, the skills that are taught and practiced should be determined most by which factor(s)?
a. the level of competition
b. the schedule for the post-season
c. the athletes’ readiness to learn the skills
d. the coach’s expectations for the season
e. a and b
1. Which statement best summarizes the principle of overload?
a. Frequent workouts bring the best results.
b. Fitness levels improve when more is demanded.
c. Maximum stress is needed for maximum fitness.
d. The more you do, the better you feel.
e. Use it slow or lose it fast.

2. Baseball players require high levels of aerobic fitness.
a. true
b. false

3. Generally, physical training reduces muscle soreness.
a. true
b. false

4. Which guideline is recommended for testing athletes’ fitness?
a. Test once a year, preferably during the preseason.
b. To individualize the testing, use different equipment for different athletes.
c. Test each function at least twice, and use the best score.
d. To avoid confounding the results, do not allow athletes to practice for the tests.
e. To increase motivation, share individual results with the team.

5. A cool-down should include an aerobic phase and a stretching phase.
a. true
b. false

6. Which principle of training supports the recommendation that athletes maintain a moderately high level of fitness during the off-season?
a. individual differences
b. specificity
c. moderation
d. overload
e. reversibility
1. When an athlete is at rest, her muscles use about 20 percent of the body’s energy, and her brain uses about 30 percent of the body’s energy.
a. true
b. false

2. What provides the primary energy required for long-duration activity?
a. the aerobic system
b. the anaerobic system
c. the phosphagen system
d. glycolysis
e. lactic acid

3. During proper cool-down activities, the aerobic energy system helps remove lactic acid by converting it to fuel.
a. true
b. false

4. The cells in the body can store only enough fuel for a one-minute walk or a five- to six-second sprint.
a. true
b. false

5. What energy fitness test is used in evaluating aerobic fitness?
a. skinfold test
b. bioelectrical impedance test
c. 30-second max test
d. sit-and-reach test
e. 1.5-mile run test
1. How can an athlete improve her running speed?
a. Decrease the length of her stride while maintaining her stride rate.
b. Increase the length of her stride while decreasing her stride rate.
c. Maintain her reaction time to the stimulus.
d. Run at her top speed with added resistance.
e. a and c

2. For power sports, strength should be 2.5 times the force required to perform the action.
a. true
b. false

3. Amy is a long-distance runner, and she is starting a new resistance program. Which objective(s) should her resistance program be designed to meet?
a. developing aerobic capacity as a foundation for her sport
b. developing short-term muscular endurance
c. developing intermediate-term muscular endurance
d. developing long-term muscular endurance
e. a, b, and c

4. Which training method(s) for developing speed should help runners learn to relax the opposite muscle when the active muscle is working?
a. speed resistance training
b. exercises for improving running form
c. overspeed training
d. all of these
e. a and c

5. A high school athlete who is beginning a resistance training program should train three or four times per week.
a. true
b. false
1. During the hottest months, an athlete should consume as much salt as he can.
a. true
b. false

2. Low- and moderate-glycemic foods such as yogurt and bananas are good pregame foods.
a. true
b. false

3. What best describes the purpose of taking vitamin supplements?
a. They provide energy to the muscles.
b. They improve performance.
c. They are more beneficial than fruits and vegetables.
d. The help regulate metabolic reactions.
e. all of these

4. A healthy diet includes 10 to 15 percent fat.
a. true
b. false

5. The body’s thirst mechanism is a good guide for determining when athletes need more fluids.
a. true
b. false

6. If an athlete eats a large meal before a competition, how many hours before the competition should she finish eating?
a. 1 hour
b. 1.5 hours
c. 2 hours
d. 2.5 hours
e. 3 hours

7. After hard workouts and competitive events, what is the best diet goal for most athletes?
a. Eat familiar foods that can be digested easily.
b. Replace the lost glycogen in the muscles, and rehydrate.
c. Eat foods with low glycemic ratings, and rehydrate.
d. Eat 5 to 10 grams of complex carbohydrate per pound of body weight every hour for 6 to 8 hours.
e. none of these
1. If a coach needs to seek help for an athlete with a drug problem, what person or people would likely be most appropriate to contact?
a. the athlete’s boyfriend or girlfriend
b. the team trainer
c. the athlete’s teammates
d. the athlete’s parents or guardians
e. b and d

2. While discussing an athlete’s drug problem with the athlete, the coach should deliver some “tough love” that includes blaming, judging, and even threatening the athlete with expulsion from the team.
a. true
b. false

3. Generally, teenage athletes use illicit drugs, tobacco, and alcohol at about the same rate that their nonathlete peers do.
a. true
b. false

4. Which approach is probably most effective for discussing with athletes the issue of drug use?
a. Limit the discussion to one preseason seminar on drug-free sport, and invite parents and guardians to attend.
b. Arrange for the school principal and nurse to lead all discussions, and make participation optional for the coaching staff.
c. Complete the discussions formally and informally, and have the coaching staff participate.
d. Let the athletes’ parents and guardians lead the discussions, and avoid discussing it at school.
e. Arrange for medically qualified professionals to lead all discussions, and do not require the coaching staff to attend.

5. After a coach discusses an athlete’s drug problem with the athlete, the coach must notify the appropriate law-enforcement agency.
a. true
b. false

6. What is an expected consequence for a teenage athlete who smokes?
a. He is less likely to have a heart attack than those who don’t smoke.
b. He is more likely to drink heavily than those who don’t smoke.
c. He is more likely to switch to smokeless tobacco because it has no harmful effects.
d. He is as likely to develop bronchitis as those who don’t smoke.
e. b and c
1. A coach’s primary tasks as a logistics manager include managing assistant coaches, team managers, athletic trainers, and other staff.
a. true
b. false

2. During the season, a coach’s primary tasks as an event and contest manager include participating in contests and conducting practices.
a. true
b. false

3. Which task should a coach complete during the postseason?
a. determining how to evaluate and select athletes for the team
b. scheduling next season’s contests
c. planning the team communication strategy
d. giving awards to recognize the athletes and coaching staff
e. clarifying eligibility requirements for athletes

4. Planning for facilities; ordering equipment, uniforms, and supplies; and arranging transportation are activities that a coach performs primarily in her role as
a. event and contest manager
b. information manager
c. instructional manager
d. logistics manager
e. personnel manager
1. A coach probably will fail more often because he lacks knowledge of his sport’s technical and tactical skills than because of his poor relationship management skills.
a. true
b. false

2. If a coach thinks an administrator is hurting the team, the coach should complain immediately to the administrator’s superior.
a. true
b. false

3. An appropriate coach–official relationship is described in which situation(s)?
a. When a coach thinks an official has contributed to his team’s loss, the coach should not thank the official for her work.
b. When an official makes several bad calls, the coach should privately harass the official about the bad calls.
c. A coach should stop using officials who repeatedly perform poorly.
d. To counter bad officiating, a coach should allow his athletes to regain the advantage by breaking a few rules of the sport.
e. b and d

4. A coach should NEVER allow parents to express their own concerns and expectations.
a. true
b. false

5. What should a coach do when she disagrees with the medical decisions the team physician made for an athlete?
a. Decline to use the physician’s services in the future.
b. Immediately send the athlete to another physician for a second opinion.
c. Advise the athlete to ignore the physician’s instructions.
d. First discuss the issue with the physician, and then decide whether or not to seek another opinion.
e. a and c
1. This is an example of appropriately fulfilling the duty to provide proper instruction: Assistant coaches teach skills without supervision by the head coach.
a. true
b. false

2. When a coach transfers the risk created by an injury to an athlete, the coach also transfers his legal duty to help the athlete avoid the injury.
a. true
b. false

3. A coach should provide the highest, most direct level of supervision in which situation(s)?
a. when athletes learn new skills
b. while athletes dress for practice
c. when athletes practice low-risk skills they can perform automatically
d. while athletes complete cool-down activities late in the season
e. a and c

4. The financial risk of litigation can be transferred by obtaining adequate liability insurance.
a. true
b. false

5. When other medical assistance is not immediately available, a coach has a duty to provide appropriate first aid for an injured athlete.
a. true
b. false

6. Providing a safe physical environment is a coach’s legal duty. Which action by a coach is NOT an example of fulfilling this legal duty?
a. Note and remedy hazardous conditions.
b. Transfer the risk by asking athletes to sign an inherent risk agreement.
c. Develop a facilities inspection checklist.
d. Give precise rules for using the facility.
e. Monitor the changing practice environment.

7. Who has a legal duty to reduce the risks of hazards in the physical environment of a sport?
a. the athletes
b. the parents
c. the trainer
d. the coach
e. c and d