Multiple Choice Answers

The post–World War II Nuremberg trials concerned war crimes committed by
A Nazi leaders
B Japanese generals
C Collaborators in all former Nazi-occupied European countries
D All Nazi, Japanese, and Italian war criminals

Two events in 1949 that helped precipitate a nationwide Communist witch hunt championed by Senator Joseph McCarthy were
A The Soviets’ explosion of an atomic bomb and the Communist revolution in China
B The downing of an American U-2 aircraft and the arrest of its pilot on espionage charges
C The invasion of South Korea by Communist North Korean forces and the murder of the South Korean president
D The defection of top U.S. officials to Moscow and the conviction and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for providing classified information to the Soviet Union

In 1956, an uprising in Hungary finally precipitated an invasion by Soviet forces when
A Hungarian leader Imre Nagy announced that Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact
B Its leaders expanded their initial purely economic demands to include the establishment of a multiparty system
C The Hungarian army ignored orders from Moscow and refused to repress the rebellion
D Marshall Zhukov overthrew Communist premier Imre Nagy

In 1949, the Soviet Union created regional economic organizations in order to
A Increase Russian production so as to stay ahead of production in eastern Europe
B Place high tariffs on goods coming into the USSR from eastern Europe
C Prevent western European goods from swamping socialist markets in eastern Europe and the USSR
D Facilitate economic cooperation between the Soviet Union and its satellite countries

In 1949, the Soviet Union created regional economic organizations of hundreds of SA leaders and other personal enemies, is known as the
A Anschluss
B Final Solution
C Night of the Long Knives
D Volkgemeinschaft

In his 1931 address to the world on social issues, Pope Pius XI
A Condemned the rising tide of ethnic tensions in eastern Europe as well as political extremism in countries such as Italy, Germany, and Russia
B Blamed the decline in European fertility rates on the modern neglect of the family, the emancipation of women, and the spread of contraception
C Condemned the failure of modern societies to provide their citizens with the moral and material conditions necessary for a decent life
D Called upon Europeans to return to their religious faith in this time of economic distress and to focus on family, thrift, and hard work

Military leaders Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, who gained near dictatorial powers over Germany during the war, gained hero status when they
A Halted the French advance at Verdun
B Beat the American expeditionary force during the AEF’s landing in Belgium
C Stopped the massive Russian army on the eastern front
D Called for a “war to the death,” which boosted German morale

When, in 1948, the Soviets blockaded Berlin, situated more than 100 miles into the Soviet zone, the United States responded by
A Threatening to rescind the Allied agreement concluded at Yalta over the Soviet’s role in Korea and Manchuria
B Cutting off negotiations with Stalin over the Soviet Union’s possible inclusion in the Marshall Plan
C Expelling Soviet diplomats from Washington, D.C., and mobilizing U.S. forces in the American zone of occupation in western Germany
D Staging Operation Vittles, an ongoing airlift that supplied the residents of Berlin with food and fuel into the spring of 1949

Hitler tried to justify his 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union by calling that country the
A “Great Slavic devil”
B “Final land for Lebensraum”
C “Stooge for Britain and France”
D “Center of judeo-bolshevism”

Yuri Gagarin caused great concern in the United States. What did he do to become famous?
A He threatened to “bury” the West during a visit to the United States
B He was the first man to orbit the earth, thus demonstrating the Soviet Union’s advances in space technology
C He was the chief scientist on the Russian nuclear weapons program
D He was the chief undercover agent for the Soviet Union based in Washington, D.C

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by Germany and Russia early in 1918
A Required Germany and Russia to cede territory for the reconstruction of Poland
B Withdrew Russia from the war in exchange for German withdrawal from the Ukraine
C Pulled Russia out of the war and changed the balance of the conflict
D Led to the creation of the Third International and its aggressive Marxist agenda

Who said “The receptivity of the great masses is very limited; their intelligence is small”?
A Joseph Goebbels
B Heinrich Himmler
C Adolf Hitler
D Friedrich Ebert

Of all the penalties imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, the one that generated the most outrage in Germany was the
A “War guilt” clause
B Demand for 132 billion gold marks in reparations
C French occupation of the western bank of the Rhine and the coal-rich Saar basin
D Loss of Alsace and Lorraine

Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969) and his peasant guerrilla forces finally forced the French to withdraw from Indochina in 1954 after the savage battle of
A Saigon
B Dien Bien Phu
C Phnom Penh
D Nam Dinh

An antifascist coalition government like the French Popular Front would have been impossible in democratic countries before 1936 because
A Stalin had just reversed his ban on international Communists participating in coalition governments
B That year saw the defeat of the antifascist Republicans in Spain
C That was the year that the League of Nations agreed to such multiparty coalitions
D No one recognized that fascism was a growing danger until that year, when Hitler unveiled his new army and air force

In the face of total military defeat by late 1944, Hitler continued to beseech the Germans to fight on, believing that
A The Germans, failing to secure victory, deserved to die
B They could at least wrest a partial victory from the Allies by holding on to territory in the East
C Such resolve would intimidate the Allies into agreeing to a less punishing peace
D Divine providence was on the German side and that a turnaround was still possible

The 1935 legislation that deprived German Jews of citizenship, defined Jewishness according to ancestry rather than belief, and prohibited marriages between Jews and other Germans was called the
A Aryan Protection Act
B Munich Decrees
C Nuremberg Laws
D Anti-Semitic Defensive Laws

Following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife in Serbia on July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum to Serbia with certain demands; Serbia accepted all of the many terms of the Austrian ultimatum except one, namely
A The presence of Austrian officials in the assassination investigation
B Serbian government condemnation of anti-Austrian propaganda
C A public condemnation of possible Serbian military involvement in the assassination
D A firm Serbian promise of noninterference in Bosnia

Upon the outbreak of World War I, the world quickly devolved into two armed and allied camps: the “Central Powers” consisting of
A Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia, and the “Allies” consisting of France, Great Britain, Turkey, and Italy
B Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the “Allies,” consisting of France, Great Britain, Russia, and Japan
C Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Poland, and the “Allies” consisting of France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States
D Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey, and Spain, and the “Allies” consisting of France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Russia

The U.S. stock market crash led to a global economic depression because
A The United States was unable to pay its war debts to European nations
B American lenders called in their international debts, which undermined banks and industry abroad
C American banks had borrowed so heavily from foreign lenders that the crash destabilized foreign currencies
D Most foreign companies traded their stock on the U.S. market

The inflation in 1923 that made German currency worthless occurred when the German government printed trillions of marks
A In an effort to pay the staggering reparations imposed by the Dawes Plan
B To cause a financial crisis that would convince the Allies of Germany’s inability to pay its reparations
C To ensure that workers were paid and to keep up with reparations payments, even though the government knew the currency was valueless
D In the mistaken belief that it could control the dip in currency values and bring on an improvement in the German balance of trade

When it was coined, the term second world referred to
A Western Europe
B The United States, Canada, and Great Britain
C The Soviet Union and its socialist allies
D The capitalist nations only

Following the official end of hostilities on November 11, 1918, the world experienced another devastating blow with the death of some twenty million more people as a result of
A Typhus
B Famine
C Influenza
D Colonial uprisings

The demands of total war in the Soviet Union had encouraged independent initiative and relaxed Communist oversight, a development that Stalin
A Encouraged in his five-year plan of 1946 through a series of decentralization measures designed to increase production levels
B Praised as proof of worker flexibility and self-empowerment, two linchpins of socialism
C Ruthlessly reversed through increased repression, increased production goals, and a still more radical collectivization of agriculture
D Reversed with the gradual adoption of the command and control procedures regularly exercised in the ever-growing Soviet army

Great Britain refused to join the European Economic Community (EEC) established by Italy, France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands in 1957 because
A The other countries refused to base the EEC’s administration in London
B It did not want to join in the establishment of a single European-wide currency
C It opposed German membership
D It resisted becoming “just another European country”

In 1929, Joseph Stalin intended to end the Soviet Union’s backwardness with an ambitious industrial expansion program called the
A New Economic Policy
B Struggle for Socialism
C Five-Year Plan
D Soviet Plan

The single most significant aspect of German military policy in terms of its provocative effect on the United States and subsequent U.S. involvement in the war was
A Unrestricted submarine warfare
B The Germans’ purported use of mass executions in Belgium
C Germany’s decision to wage a two-front war
D The forced removal of entire European populations to labor camps in Germany

Following the end of World War II, the British and Americans were alarmed when
A Communist insurgents threatened the British-installed, right-wing monarchy in Greece
B Ethnic rivalry in the Balkans left the Serbian Communists as the strongest party in the region
C The French Communist Party experienced phenomenal growth
D The German Federal Republic failed to outlaw the German Communist Party

One of the lasting effects of World War I was that
A International negotiations and peace conferences were abandoned because they had not prevented the war
B Certain military terms and soldiers’ slang entered common usage, such as lousy, trench coat, rank and file, and basket case
C The horror of mechanized war caused many munitions manufacturers to question innovation in arms making
D The 1920s were a gloomy decade of retrenchment and cultural stagnation

One development of the 1920s that made it easier for ordinary people to obtain new consumer goods such as refrigerators, washing machines, and stoves was
A Electrical appliance warehouses that sold directly to the consumer at dramatically reduced prices
B The introduction of lower-priced manufactured goods from the colonies, produced by low-paid native labor
C Installment buying, which allowed families to pay for goods over time
D Government-sponsored loans that were intended to improve veterans’ standard of living

In the spring of 1920, a military coup led by members of right-wing paramilitary units (Freikorps) was put down when
A The new head of the German High Command sent demobilized military units to retake Berlin
B President Friedrich Ebert called a general strike, which brought Berlin to a standstill and revealed the coup to have no popular support
C The communist Spartacists ambushed coup leaders, killing the conspirators at their headquarters in Berlin
D The Freikorps clashed with their rivals, the National Socialist “brownshirts,” in a pitched battle in the streets of Berlin

Stalin’s use of terror tactics to assure fulfillment of the production quotas in the 1930s
A Was in keeping with the tactics used by Lenin to inspire compliance with his New Economic Policy in the 1920s
B Led to uprisings among factory workers and the imprisonment of so many workers that production dropped some 20 percent by 1938
C Led to the emigration of up to half a million skilled and semiskilled workers until Stalin effectively sealed the borders in 1938
D Made lying, such as the falsification of production figures, and corruption permanent features of the Soviet Communist system

In 1964, after a protracted war, Kenya won formal independence when nationalist fighters from the Kikuyu ethnic group, known as Mau Mau,
A Repulsed French forces at Mombasa
B Overran the capital city of Nairobi, forcing the British to agree to an independence agreement in order to avoid further bloodshed
C Defeated the British, but only after the slaughter of some tens of thousands of Kikuyus
D Resisted British attempts to retain control by promoting a countrywide strike of state-run industries

The concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau shows that the camps were part of a larger German war strategy because, in addition to being a place of mass murder
A It served as a technical testing ground for new German weapons
B It was built to look like a munitions factory in the hopes that British and American bombers would target it
C It was also used as a labor camp
D It was used in propaganda films to prove to Germans that the prisoners there were lower than animals

The Japanese attempted to portray their aggression in Asia as
A Restoring ancient religious beliefs and practices, especially Confucianism
B Freeing the region from Western imperialism
C Establishing democratic governments in place of the ancient monarchies of Asia
D A Communist-style state run from a central government located in Japan

When Stalin called for the “liquidation of the kulaks,” he was referring to
A Prosperous peasants and anyone who opposed his plans to end independent farming
B Coal miners from Siberia who went on strike just before the harsh winter of 1929
C The remaining Russian bankers who resisted his plans to nationalize their holdings
D Criminals who were making a profit through buying and selling black market goods

In 1936, both France and Britain led Mussolini to believe that they would do little to stop fascist aggression when they
A Thwarted an attempt by some members of the League of Nations to impose a rigorous embargo on Italy following Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia
B Forcibly repatriated Italian refugees fleeing arrest by Mussolini’s fascist police force
C Agreed to lower import duties on Italian goods despite Italy’s seizure of Abyssinia two weeks earlier
D Failed to protest or otherwise respond to the virulent rhetoric that accompanied Mussolini’s declaration of a Rome–Berlin axis

By 1917, efforts to put an end to the war mushroomed across the European continent, including all of the following except
A Austria-Hungary’s secret request to the Allies for a negotiated peace settlement
B The German Reichstag’s call for a “peace of understanding and permanent reconciliation of peoples”
C A rebellion in Vienna led by students who temporarily took hold of the Austrian parliament
D A widespread mutiny of French soldiers

The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, or COMECON,
A Stunted eastern European development by forcing satellite nations to buy exorbitantly priced Soviet-made goods and to sell their own goods to the USSR at a loss
B Divided the Soviet eastern European sphere of influence into an agrarian zone in the south and an industrial zone to the north
C Propped up many eastern European economies with Soviet-funded subsidies, giving these nations time to produce and sell on their own
D Led to an energizing exchange of goods, ideas, and peoples throughout eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and, thus, to a liberalization of Communist political controls

In April 1917, the Germans moved to destabilize Russia by
A Sending agents to blow up railway tracks, provoking a tsarist crackdown on dissidents
B Using submarines to cut off the Russian supply lines in the Baltic Sea
C Distributing leaflets and forged documents in Russia that purportedly proved that Nicholas II planned to reimpose serfdom
D Providing safe rail transportation back to Russia for Lenin and other Bolsheviks

The relentless German bombing of British cities in the summer of 1940 is known as
A The battle of Britain
B The Summer of Bombs
C The Great Air War
D The battle of the Atlantic

In the 1930s, although the views of politicians varied, one concern shared by all was that
A Greater popular participation in politics would secure political stability by heightening the sense of shared responsibility
B Pump priming and government-sponsored job programs offered surefire solutions to effect an economic turnaround
C Falling birthrates meant a serious weakening or imminent collapse of individual nations, if not European society altogether
D An expansion of overseas markets would generate impressive revenues and lead to future prosperity

World War I was called a “total war” because
A All of the countries in Europe, their colonial possessions, and the United States were involved in it
B The entire industrial capacity of the state, as well as all civilian and military personnel, was mobilized to fight the war
C The new weapons of war, including poison gas and machine guns, killed virtually everyone in their path
D Armies on both sides used a scorched-earth tactic to destroy all crops, livestock, buildings, and infrastructure in their paths

The Nuremberg trials against Nazi war criminals, held in the fall of 1945, led to either execution or long-term prison terms for some
A 300 senior Nazi SS, Gestapo, and military officers
B 24 senior Nazi officials
C 1,000 Nazi officials and concentration camp administrators
D 100 defendants, including 35 Nazi judges

Total war had a significant impact on gender roles: women on the home front
A Became shockingly liberated and promiscuous in the wake of their newfound Freedom from male chaperones, guardians, and even husbands
B Were dedicated pacifists who were largely out of sympathy with government and military men
C Became convinced of veterans’ need for a secure family life and retreated from feminism and women’s social gains to cultivate a nurturing domesticity
D Were more independent, labored at formerly male occupations, changed to practical hairstyles and clothing, and took advantage of greater political and social freedoms

In the late 1930s, who helped convince the Swedish government of the importance of providing financial assistance, medical benefits, and child-care services to mothers and families?
A Frederika Bremer
B Alva Myrdal
C Selma Lagerlof
D Viveca Teuber

Which of the following was not a goal of the European Economic Community (the Common Market) in the 1950s?
A Reducing tariffs among its members
B Reducing nationalist rivalries
C Developing common trade policies for all members
D Integrating British Commonwealth trade into European markets

The Dawes Plan (1924), the Young Plan (1929), and the Treaty of Locarno (1925) tried to
A Create a balance of power by limiting the number of battleships each country could build
B Correct some of the more punitive provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
C Avoid an economic depression by establishing a single currency standard
D Strengthen the League of Nations with a set of goals for each nation to achieve

Among all the combatants the world over, the country that suffered the greatest number of casualties, with some 7.5 million dead during World War I, was
A Germany
B France
C Great Britain
D Russia

In 1949, German centrist politicians founded the new state of the German Federal Republic, whose first chancellor was the Catholic politician
A Willy Brandt
B Helmut Schmidt
C Konrad Adenauer
D Ludwig Erhard