Multiple Choice Answers

1. Which of the following is NOT a way that the Confederacy was like the North?

Each government financed the war through taxes and issuing paper money.
Both presidents, despite little military background, ably directed the war effort.
Each government relied initially on volunteer soldiers, but later had to institute a draft, which provoked deep hostility.
The demands of war tended to increase the power of the central government and accelerate industrialization on both sides.

2. Lincoln, later revered as the Great Emancipator, ironically infringed on the civil liberties of northerners during the Civil War—specifically by
suspending the writ of habeas corpus in areas still in rebellion in the South.
recommending postponement of the presidential election due to be held in 1864.
defying the Supreme Court’s order to free those imprisoned without being charged.
suspending the writ of habeas corpus in specified areas in the North.

3. The Union war effort began by implementing the strategy embodied in General Winfield Scott’s “anaconda plan,” which called for
a concealed and roundabout infiltration of Confederate territory west of the Mississippi.
postponing direct military operations until the North’s industrial capacity could be brought up to full military production.
a sudden strike against a vulnerable point of the borders of the Confederacy.
encircling and squeezing the Confederacy with a naval blockade.

4. At the beginning of the Civil War, which one of the following factors favored the South?
the potential for developing an industrial base to sustain the war effort
the fact that the fighting would be on southern soil
the manpower pool
the transportation system

5. The Civil War marked a significant change in the history of human warfare, in all EXCEPT which of the following ways?
The complexity, size, and spatial spread of the armies on the battlefield jumped in magnitude.
It was the first total war in history.
More soldiers died of battle wounds than camp diseases.
The technology of weaponry gave the defense the advantage over the offense.

6. With respect to slavery, Lincoln at first ________, but later he ________.
was indifferent to the slavery issue; freed all slaves by executive order
resisted any interference with the institution; reluctantly went along with Congress’s initiative in ending slavery by Constitutional amendment
worried about alienating the border states; proclaimed, as a military measure, that slaves in rebel areas were free
lagged behind northern opinion, which strongly supported emancipation; urged Congress not only to end slavery but also to give blacks full social and political equality

7. Lincoln finally found “his general.” Who was he, and why?
General Grant, who was willing to keep attacking with the tactics of total and relentless war
General Meade, who won the decisive battle of the war at Gettysburg
General Sherman, who showed a willingness to carry the war to the South’s civilian population
General McClellan, who displayed great gifts as an organizer and trainer of large armies

8. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the impact of the war?
The principle was established that the American union is perpetual.
The loss of life nearly equaled the combined battle deaths of all of America’s other wars.
The nation’s political balance of power shifted dramatically.
The richest section of the country (in terms of white per capita wealth) became even richer.

9. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation declared slaves to be free
in those areas of the South under Union control.
in those areas of the South under Confederate control.
everywhere in the U.S. (including the South).
in the border states and western territories.

10. The North raised money to support the war effort through all of the following methods EXCEPT
loans (i.e., government bonds).
printing paper money.
raising taxes.
accepting fees from draftees in lieu of induction.

11. The chapter introduction tells the story of the first battle of Manassas (Bull Run) to make the point that
the Confederate army was unprepared to fight.
the Union army was unprepared to fight.
both sides underestimated what it would be like to fight a total war.
although the North had the advantage of initiative, the fighting would often turn out to be a series of Confederate victories against all odds.

12. The Republican Congress during the Civil War passed economic legislation that would have warmed Henry Clay’s heart, including all EXCEPT
the restriction of money to hard currency (“specie”).
a system of nationally-chartered banks.
a program to underwrite the costs of public colleges.
a protective tariff.

13. During the war, women of both the North and the South did all of the following EXCEPT
enter the formerly male professions of nursing and teaching.
run railroads.
run farms and plantations.
take jobs in the growing government bureaucracies.

14. According to the text, what was the event that decided the “war in the balance”—that is, the event that both ended any last hopes of the Confederacy and assured the abolition of slavery?
the elevation of Grant to Commander in Chief
the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg
the Emancipation Proclamation
the re-election of Lincoln

15. One significant difference between the Confederacy and the North was that
fighting for a cause, the South sustained a strong sense of morality and discipline, while the perils and profits of war undermined the moral order of northern society.
the South became poorer, while the North tended to prosper.
the South had to resort to a draft, while the North was able to raise its army from volunteers.
southerners initially romanticized the war, expecting a swift end, but northerners more realistically expected a long and ugly struggle.

16. The battle at Antietam Creek was significant for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
that it was the bloodiest single-day battle in the history of American warfare.
that it repulsed a Confederate invasion of the North.
that it provided an occasion for Lincoln to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
that it proved McClellan could mastermind a victory after all.

17. Both South and North experienced rioting during the war. Why?
on both sides, over military regulations like the draft and economic controls
in the South over easing slave codes; in the North over jailing dissidents
on both sides, over centralization of political power
in the South over food; in the North over the draft

18. Although at the outset European experts expected the Confederacy to prevail, the North won, demonstrating that in modern war, ________ can offset ________.
technology; terrain and distance
strategic planning; idealistic determination
sheer numerical superiority; the advantages of superior leadership
industrial power; agricultural power

19. What was Jefferson Davis’s central problem in organizing the South for war?
In a war that required rapid mobilization of a whole society, most ordinary folk in the South expected a protracted conflict and hence were reluctant to enlist.
In a crisis that demanded tough-minded attention to military details, Davis was more of a grand strategist.
In a culture that prized the English country gentry, Davis was rough-hewn and awkward.
In a society that prized states’ rights, Davis had to centralize authority.

20. The Confederacy suffered from rampant inflation because
speculators hoarded cotton.
the war was financed primarily through printing paper money.
wages rose, due to the fact that with so many men off to war, workers were scarce.
the blockade cut off trade with Europe, producing scarcities.