Multiple Choice Answers

1. The stage during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated is labeled as Piaget’s _____ stage of cognitive development.
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operational
formal operations
2. Empirical evidence is collected by _____.  making inferences gathering qualitative and quantitative data through direct observation interviewing experts in the field conducting controlled laboratory experiments
3. People who believe that a new diet is safe and effective because a doctor wrote the book are forgetting that  few “truths” transcend the need for testing. evidence varies in quality. authority does not automatically make an idea true. critical thinking requires an open mind.
4. Psychology’s history as a science began _____.  in Austria, when Sigmund Freud published his studies on psychoanalysis in 1895. In America, when William James published his studies on psychoanalysis in 1890. In Germany, when Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in 1879. In Russia, when Ivan Pavlov published his research on conditioning in 1906.
5. What did functionalism contribute?  It became the basis of behaviorism. It promoted educational psychology. It influenced the development of psychoanalysis. It argued that only humans should be the subjects of study.
6. Which of the following would be studied by a researcher in the field of positive psychology?  Factors that reduce violence and aggression The role of conformity in riots the factors that may enhance an individual’s creativity The factors that reduce job burnout among employees
7. Psychologists who study human thinking and information processing abilities are referred to as _____.  Clinical psychologists Educational psychologists Cognitive psychologists Developmental psychologists
8. Which of the following is stressed in the professional code of ethics?  Personal morality High levels of competition Respects for people’s right to privacy Research protocols with humans only
9. In a scientific experiment, a _________ is any condition that can change and that might affect the outcome of the experiment.  sample variable placebo hypothesis
10. The procedure by which each subject in a study has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental and control group is called  random sampling. random assignment. an extraneous variable. meta analysis.
11. Joe takes an herbal supplement for pain in his knees. A few days after starting the supplement, his pain seems to decrease and he tells people that this supplement is wonderful at controlling knee pain. What else could explain Joe’s diminished pain?  the placebo effect the replication effect the experimenter effect the observer effect
12. If neither the subjects nor the experimenter know which subjects get the true independent variable and which gets the placebo, the study is called a _____ experiment.  single-blind double-blind field dual
13. ________ refers to the genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to children and _________ refers to the sum of all external conditions that affect a person.  nature; nurture polygenic characteristics; readiness teratogen; enrichment biology; ecology
14. Denny was born weighing only five pounds, with a small head, thin upper lip, and oddly shaped eyes. He is also mentally retarded. Denny’s mother most likely used which of the following during her pregnancy?  cocaine nicotine alcohol aspirin
15. All human emotions appear by  age 1. age 2. age 3. age 4.
16. In Ainsworth’s study, a baby who seemed disinterested in the mother’s comings and goings, turning away from her when she returned, was labeled  securely attached. insecure-ambivalent. insecure-avoidant. disorganized.
17. A child who develops to be dependent and immature most likely had parents who followed which types of parenting style?  authoritarian authoritative permissive Type-B
18. When looking at ethnic differences in parenting, the following cultures tend to be group oriented, and they emphasize interdependence among individuals.  African-American Hispanic Arab-American Asian-American
19. When a toddler uses siWhen a toddler uses simple two-word sentences to communicate, it is referred to as _________.  single-word speech
telegraphic speech
double-word speech
preoperational speech

20. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of _____.  human behavior the mind behavior and mental processes mental processes

21. In Lawrence Kohlberg’s research on moral development, reasoning that is based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted authority, rules, and values is labeled the ______ level.
preconventional
conventional
postconventional
nonconventional

22. Carol Gilligan pointed out that existing studies on moral development are biased because
different races were not studied.
children were disregarded.
a woman’s concern with relatives can look like a weakness rather than a strength.
only males participated in the studies.

23. How many stages is the life cycle are presented in Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development?
4
6
8
12

24. In life-span developmental theories, adolescents struggle with conflicts involving _____.
the need to form a consistent identity.
the ability to trust the primary caregivers in their lives
the development of intimate relationships
the ability to look back at life with a sense of integrity

25. According to Carol Ryff, all of the following are associated with well-being during adulthood except
self-acceptance.
environmental mastery.
a purpose in life.
a critical review of one’s life.
26. Children who are rebellious and aggressive are often the products of which of the following styles of discipline?
power assertion
withdrawal of love
management techniques
passive/aggressive

27. In which of Kubler-Ross’s stages would someone who feels exhausted and has a sense of futility be?
denial
anger
bargaining
depression

28. After being awake for more than 60 hours, a person may develop hallucinations and delusional thinking in a state called
microsleep syndrome.
sleep deprivation.
sleep deprivation psychosis.
abnormal awareness

29. In which stages of sleep would a person be most difficult to wake?
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4

30. The bulk of people’s dreams occur during _____.
REM sleep
NREM sleep
stage 4, deep sleep
stage 2, light sleep

31. Which of the following is true of NREM sleep?
It may help the body recover from bodily fatigue.
Breathing becomes irregular.
NREM sleep is marked by rapid EEG patterns.
Dreams are more vivid and emotional during NREM.

32. A hereditary problem in which the victim has irresistible “sleep attacks” in the day is called
REM behavior disorder.
narcolepsy.
sleep apnea.
excessive daytime sleepiness.

33. Freud’s psychodynamic theory of dreaming emphasizes _____.
dreams as sensations, motor commands, and memories that are synthesized by the cortex of the brain
dreams as internal psychic abilities that provide insight into the future
dreams as internal conflicts and unconscious forces that are based on wish fulfillment
dreams as a form of hypnosis

34. Stimulants _____ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _____ it.
reduce; enhance
enhance; increase
increase; decrease
reduce; decrease

35. The life expectancy of the average cigarette smoker is reduced by
1 – 5 years
5 – 10 years
10 – 15 years
15 – 20 years

36. The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior is known as _____.
cognition
learning
imprinting
intelligence formation

37. In classical conditioning, _____ are important, while in operant conditioning, _____ are primary for learning.
antecedents; consequences
consequences; antecedents
responses; reflexes
responses; antecedents

38. When a tone is sounded, a baby’s right cheek is touched, and the baby reflexively turns its head to the direction of the touch. After several pairings, the baby turns its head to the right as soon as it hears the tone. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is the
touch.
tone.
head turning.
eye movement.

39. Steve used to love dogs but was badly bitten by a stray dog once. Now he is extremely fearful when he sees any dog nearing him. This is an example of
a conditioned emotional response
an anxiety disorder
an operant
systematic desensitization.

40. Operant conditioning operates on the principle that behaviors occur more often when they are _____.
reinforced
punished
modeled
ignored

41. Karen and her husband are very prejudiced, Their daughter Nikki, although only a small child, also reacts very negatively to people who are different from her. Her emotional response is most likely due to
shaping.
vicarious classical conditioning.
stimulus generalization.
stimulus discrimination.

42. If parents ignore a child’s temper tantrums and the tantrums subsequently cease, _____ has occurred.
stimulus generalization
stimulus discrimination
operant extinction
shaping

43. David punishes his puppy (by placing the dog in a “time-out” box for several minutes) for soiling the rug when he comes home from work. Which rule of punishment has David broken?
It needs to be immediate.
It is long-lasting.
It needs to be consistent.
It works best if it is severe.

44. The correct order for the three stages of memory is _____.
short-term memory, long-term memory, retrieval
working memory, sensory register memory, long-term memory
sensory register memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
short term memory, sensory register memory, long-term memory

45. If most of your textbook pages are highlighted with a yellow highlighter, you have probably violated which of the following methods for improving memory?
recitation
organization
selection
overlearning

46. Which of the following refers to memories for skills such as tying shoes?
episodic
procedural
declarative
explicit

47. Taking a multiple choice test is based on what kind of memory retrieval?
recall
recognition
relearning
revision

48. Forgetting because we never really formed the memory in the first place is termed
encoding failure.
memory-trace decay.
interference.
repression.

49. If you hear that an airplane crashes into the Empire State Building, and you immediately think of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, you are reacting to what type of memory?
a repressed memory
a suppressed memory
a flashbulb memory
a pseudo-memory
50. Information is transferred from sensory memory to _____ by means of _____.
short-term memory; rehearsal
long-term memory; selective attention
short term memory; selective attention
long-term memory, rehearsal