Multiple Choice Answers

1. The branch-like fibers extending in clusters from the neuron’s cell body are called __________.
A) axons
B) terminal buttons
C) glial fibers
D) dendrites

2. Electrical wires are generally protected by a coating of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by:
A) myelin
B) glial cells
C) terminal buttons
D) somas

3. Within neurons the communication is _____; Between neurons the communication is _____.
A) chemical; electrical
B) mechanical; electrical
C) electrical; mechanical
D) electrical; chemical

4. You cannot fire a gun softly, or flush a toilet halfway.  Like an action potential, gunfire and a toilet’s flush follow the __________ law.
A) this-or-that
B) is-or-ain’t
C) all-or-none
D) binary response

5. The chemicals that relay signals across the synapses between neurons are called _________.
A) neurosignals
B) neurotransmitters
C) synaptic messengers
D) action potentials

6. Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer.  Apparently, Yves’ _________ is functioning poorly.
A) cerebellum
B) thalamus
C) medulla
D) corpus callosum

7. Which of the following brain structures, located behind the brain stem, governs memory and emotion?
A) cerebellum
B) thalamus
C) limbic system
D) medulla

8. Darnell underwent surgery to control his severe epilepsy.  Now, however, Darnell cannot form new memories of his experiences, although he does remember events in the past.  Most likely, the surgery destroyed a portion of the ______ in Darnell’s brain.
A) amygdala
B) corpus callosum
C) hypothalamus
D) hippocampus

9. A monkey makes an involuntary gesture when a portion of its brain is electrically stimulated. The area of the brain that was most likely stimulated is the:
A) motor cortex
B) sensory cortex
C) amygdala
D) occipital lobe

10. The “new brain” is the:
A) hindbrain
B) limbic system
C) cerebral cortex
D) cerebellum

11. Automatic, involuntary responses to stimuli are termed __________.
A) action potentials
B) conditioned responses
C) instincts
D) reflexes

12. The central nervous system consists of _____________.  The peripheral nervous system comprises _____________.
A) the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
B) the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the brain and the spinal cord
C) the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
D) the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

13. Izzy’s pupils are dilated and her heart is pounding; her breathing is shallow and rapid.  Her _________ nervous system is active.
A) parasympathetic
B) sympathetic
C) autosympathetic
D) somatic

14. Anna is reading her psychology text.  The activation of receptors in her retina is called ________; her interpretation of the stimuli as particular words is termed _______.
A) perception; transduction
B) sensation; transduction
C) sensation; perception
D) transduction; perception

15. The purpose of signal detection analysis is to:
A) identify the psychological effects of physical stimulation
B) determine a perceiver’s ability to distinguish true signals from background stimulation
C) investigate an observer’s subliminal perceptions
D) determine a perceiver’s cognitions

16. Which of the following is the function of the cornea?
A) It reflects light away from the retina
B) It regulates the amount of light entering the eye
C) It contains the photoreceptor cells
D) It protects the eye

17. Which of the following describes the tympanic membrane?
A) The membrane at the end of the ear
B) The external, visible part of the ear
C) The fluid-filled structure in the inner ear
D) The ear drum

18. Proprioception refers to:
A) our ability to sense the positions of our body parts
B) our sense of smell
C) our sensation of pressure and temperature
D) our experience of pain

19. Which neurotransmitter acts as the brain’s natural pain killer?
A) dopamine
B) serotonin
C) glutamate
D) endorphins

20. The ability to focus on some sensory inputs while tuning out others is termed _________ attention.
A) specific
B) selective
C) targeted
D) adaptive

1. Describe three methods that psychologists use to study the brain.  Identify one potential advantage or disadvantage of each method that you describe.

2. Describe and distinguish between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.  For each division, provide a real life example of a situation in which the division would become active.

3. Define (a) an absolute threshold and (b) a difference threshold and provide an original example from your own experience for each one (a) and (b).

4. Playing a piano is a complicated skill that involves every major aspect of behavior and cognition.  To be proficient, pianists must have honed their fine motor skills.  In addition, many aspects of thinking come into play.  Please answer BOTH of the following parts (a AND b).
a. Identify and name one lower-level brain structure. Describe its function and specifically how it is involved in musical performance.
b. Identify and name one upper-level brain structure. Describe its function and specifically how it is involved in musical performance.

5. Dancers can perform seemingly meaningless movements which, when viewed from above, are transformed into intricate patterns and designs.  Furthermore, the formations of marching bands often create pictures and spell words.  Identify and describe at least three Gestalt principles of grouping.  How do they explain the audience’s perception of the images created by these types of formations?