Multiple Choice Answers

Question: In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published Emile, which offered his theories on
A Democracy
B The Catholic Church
C Education
D The military

Question: The revolutionaries’ decision to take over the education of boys and girls failed because
A They removed the Catholic clergy who had been teachers but did not have other teachers ready to take their place
B Political indoctrination took the place of subjects such as math, grammar, and history
C Only families able to pay school fees could send their children to state schools
D Education was restricted to the children of proven revolutionaries and veterans

Question: Historians emphasize that what came to be called Britain’s “agricultural revolution” in the 1700s cannot be attributed to
A The selective breeding of animals
B The planting of fodder crops, such as clover and turnips, instead of field rotation
C The invention of new machinery
D An increase in the amount of land under cultivation

Question: The birth and growth of a European consumer society succeeded despite
A Attacks by writers and intellectuals who claimed that humans were becoming gluttonous animals
B Efforts by monarchs to stop the flood of imports in order to protect local producers
C Wildly fluctuating prices for new consumer products and exotic foods
D The reluctance of producers in colonial lands to sell commodities at enforced low prices

Question: In the Act of Union of 1707, Scottish Protestant leaders abolished the Scottish Parliament and instead agreed to obey the Parliament of Great Britain
A Because they feared Jacobitism
B Following Queen Anne’s successful suppression of a Scottish-Catholic revolt
C Thus making official the shift in power that had occurred long before
D When Queen Anne promised them sinecures and seats as peers in the House of Lords

Question: Napoleon’s founding of the Legion of Honor in 1802 was part of his campaign to
A Claim the legacy of ancient Rome by establishing an elite based on virtue and faithfulness
B Build a permanent elite fighting force to increase French colonial possessions abroad
C Control French culture by granting liberal pensions to those artists and writers of whom he approved
D Establish a social hierarchy based on merit

Question: How did the Enlightenment in France differ from that in Germany?
A The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrest
B Germany’s intellectuals, such as Immanuel Kant, were far more interested in the practical application of the new ideology than were their French counterparts
C French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholars
D French philosophes intended their work for the masses but because the Prussian state limited education only to the well-to-do, ordinary people could not participate in the Enlightenment

Question: The spread of Enlightenment ideals and the emergence of a more prosperous middle class in Europe were also reflected in music with
A The founding of music academies and scholarships, which for the first time enabled the young sons of the middle classes to pursue musical careers
B The transition from complex polyphony to an emphasis on more popularly accessible melody
C The establishment of open-air concerts for paying audiences, which freed musicians from financial concerns and thus from dependency on royal patronage
D A rejection of baroque and all older styles of musical composition in favor of continuous innovation and experimentation

Question: The eighteenth century witnessed an impressive upsurge in the production of books, pamphlets, and newspapers, along with a concomitant rise in literacy rates that was most evident in
A Spain and Portugal
B Scandinavia, Scotland, and parts of Switzerland
C The German states of the Holy Roman Empire
D France

Question: Writers of the Enlightenment called themselves
A Pensés
B Philosophes
C Bibliophiles
D Incroyables

Question: Montesquieu’s Persian Letters, anonymously published in the Dutch Republic in 1721, is an example of
A Books that responded to the new European interest in exotic plants and flowers
B Travel accounts that took an intolerant view of non-Christian countries
C Political critiques of European politics and society that were disguised as travel accounts
D The way letters written on a foreign journey could be turned into a best-seller

Question: When the Estates General met in 1789, their first decision concerned the
A Bank of France
B Role of the king
C Food shortage
D Voting procedure

Question: In response to a massive uprising of the long-oppressed serfs of Russia, Empress Catherine “the Great” (r. 1762–1796)
A Increased the nobles’ power over them
B Promulgated laws easing the legal restrictions that had prevented serfs from leaving family plots, earning independent livelihoods, and marrying without their feudal lords’ permission
C Declared war on Prussia as a way of diverting attention away from social problems at home
D Repealed the tax increases of the mid-century and shifted some of the tax burden to the heretofore tax-exempt nobility

Question: Peter the Great was determined to Westernize his country, and one of the most significant steps in that direction was
A Appointing a chief minister who managed court affairs, made political appointments, and oversaw mercantile policy
B Making up for the lack of a Russian middle class by encouraging noblewomen to become involved in science, education, and trade
C Undertaking extensive colonization efforts in Africa to obtain the raw materials that provided so much of western Europe’s wealth
D Founding the new technical and scientific schools that were run by Western officials

Question: The dispute in the French National Assembly between the Girondins and the Mountagnards was over
A Whether the upper ranks of the aristocracy should be exiled along with the king, Louis XVI (the Mountagnards’ position), or the king alone should be exiled (the Girondins’ position)
B Whether the entire royal family should be exiled (the Mountagnards’ position) or executed (the Girondins’ position)
C Whether the king, Louis XVI, was guilty of treason (the Girondins’ position) or simply shirking his responsibilities (the Mountagnards’ position)
D Whether the king, Louis XVI, should be executed for treason (the Mountagnards’ position) or given clemency or exile (the Girondins’ position)

Question: Napoleon’s feared minister of police, who made liberal use of his authority to spy on and arbitrarily imprison all political dissidents, was
A Louis-Léopold Boilly
B Alexandre Berthier
C Joseph Fouché
D Eugène de Beauharnais

Question: Which of the following measures was not part of Napoleon’s “new paternalism”?
A Children up to the age of sixteen could be imprisoned for refusing to follow their father’s commands
B Employers were prohibited from deducting fines and arbitrarily reducing employee wages
C Destitute women could more easily abandon their children anonymously to government foundling hospitals
D The government prohibited all workers’ organizations

Question: By the eighteenth century, many Europeans began to try to provide a rationale for the institution of slavery based predominantly on
A Religious grounds, as many asserted that African “heathens” deserved to be enslaved
B Africans’ purported mental inferiority
C Historical precedent, pointing to slavery as a “natural” practice that dated as far back as ancient Greece and the Roman empire
D The claim that contact with European religion and culture, coupled with hard work, had an edifying, or civilizing, effect on so-called primitive peoples

Question: The “incorruptible” leader of the Committee of Public Safety was
A Jacques-Louis David
B Maximilien Robespierre
C Georges-Jacques Danton
D Jean-Paul Marat

Question: The slave trade had a lasting impact on Europe because it
A Encouraged many more Europeans to go to the colonies to find work
B Put many European farmers out of business by undercutting their prices
C Permanently altered consumption patterns for ordinary people
D Introduced African products and goods into Europe for the first time