Multiple Choice Answers

Question 1
The majoritarian model of democracy works poorly in regard to foreign policy because
Question 1 answers
Americans do not have opinions on foreign policy.
Americans tend to be influenced by their ethnic backgrounds, which reflect a pluralist society.
Foreign policy is seldom mentioned during election campaigns.
Policymakers are influenced by public opinion on foreign policy only when it reaches consensus levels.
Too many other cultures and nations are involved in decisions.

Question 2
The goal of the Nixon doctrine was to
Question 2 answers
intervene overseas only where intervention would make a real difference.
fight communist aggression anywhere.
destroy the Democratic headquarters at the Watergate building.
end the welfare system.
engage in military operations only against Soviet satellite nations.

Question 3 text
What was the New Deal?
Question 3 answers
A strategy to end World War II
A number of government policies designed to end the Great Depression
A plan to reconstruct the membership of the Supreme Court
A series of plans to adapt easily to industrialization
A comprehensive infrastructure project.

Question 4
Using the poverty line as a social indicator helps to ensure that
Question 4 answers
progress toward equality improves the absolute conditions of the least well-off Americans.
redistribution from the top income groups will occur in pursuit of equality.
the government will have a sensitive measure of who is living in poverty.
all families will be provided with such basic items as food and shelter.
as poverty increases, so does aid.

Question 5
The list of racial discrimination problems that the State Department catalogued in its civil rights report included all of the following except
Question 5 answers
enactment of laws specifically designed to ensure racial segregation.
inadequate enforcement of existing anti-discrimination laws.
persistent discrimination in employment and labor relations.
lack of access to technology and high technology skills.
lack of educational opportunity.

Question 6
The New Deal was composed of two basic elements:
Question 6 answers
one to shift responsibility for welfare programs to the states, the other to keep people on farms and in rural areas.
one to boost prices and lower unemployment, the other to aid specific groups of disadvantaged people.
one to reduce unnecessary federal expenditures, the other to balance the federal budget.
one to provide for government ownership of such major industries as steel and coal production, the other to provide for government management of banks.
one to rebuild public buildings in need of repair, the other to assist cities in road development.

Question 7
President Reagan’s efforts to trim the American welfare state
Question 7 answers
had no effect on social welfare spending.
led to a dramatic increase in social welfare spending.
stopped the growth of social welfare spending that had begun with the New Deal.
reduced social welfare spending in the United States by 50 percent.
was initially effective but then the requirements were relaxed and became ineffective.

Question 8
The phrase uncontrollable outlays refers to the fact that
Question 8 answers
much of the budget is already committed by past contracts and agreements and cannot be altered by elected officials.
Congress and the president seldom agree on a budget.
politicians lack the courage to make budget cuts.
the amount of time spent in hearings and debates on the federal budget increases every year.
spending is automatic if no budget agreement is reached.

Question 9
Under which U.S. president was the New Deal conceived?
Question 9 answers
Franklin Roosevelt
John Kennedy
Theodore Roosevelt
Lyndon Johnson
Harry Truman

Question 10
How might one characterize U.S. foreign policy toward Europe for most of the nineteenth century?
Question 10 answers
Anticommunist
Globalist
Isolationist
Interventionist
Protectionist

Question 11
A person is affected by a government policy in a way that discourages them from taking the action contemplated. Such a policy tool is known as a(n)
Question 11 answers
incentive.
disincentive.
compromise.
regulation.
permissive.

Question 12
The basic rationale behind court-ordered busing was that
Question 12 answers
busing was needed to integrate schools because of segregated residence patterns within and around cities.
putting children of different races together on a bus would help them learn to interact peacefully.
districts that had practiced de jure segregation ought to be punished for their actions.
both black parents and white parents would respond more favorably to integration if it were achieved by busing.
transportation was the most effective sway to address people’s fears of other races.

Question 13
Of the following, which can be considered a progressive tax?
Question 13 answers
State and local sales taxes
Federal income tax
Payroll tax that funds social security
Federal poll taxes
use taxes

Question 14
The strike and boycott led by Cesar Chavez had the effect of
Question 14 answers
insuring that farm workers would be people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds.
attaining somewhat better pay, housing, and working conditions for farm workers.
creating a very politically active Mexican community in the Southwest.
dismantling the system of agricultural day labor.
unemploying many Hispanics, many of whom returned to Mexico.

Question 15
Developing budgets by using last year’s budget as the base and adding an amount to cover the increased costs of doing business (inflation) and any new programs is called
Question 15 answers
deficit budgeting.
program-planning-budgeting-system (PPBS).
incremental budgeting.
zero-based budgeting.
cost analysis.

Question 16
Which amendment to the Constitution guaranteed women the right to vote?
Question 16 answers
Nineteenth, in 1920
Twenty-sixth, in 1971
Fifteenth, in 1870
Twenty-Fourth, in 1964
Eighteenth, in 1918.

Question 17
U.S. citizens are often critical of the provision of foreign aid, but they also
Question 17 answers
appreciate the fact that the United States is helping others when they have seen conditions abroad.
routinely overestimate what the nation spends on aid.
suffer under one of the highest tax burdens on the planet.
respond intelligently to survey questions about this issue, leading us to believe that government fails to be responsive to citizen demands.
realize that other nations help support the U.S.

Question 18
The civil right’s guarantee of “equal protection of the laws” is located in
Question 18 answers
the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
the Preamble to the Constitution.
the Declaration of Independence.
the Fourteenth Amendment.
the Sixth Amendment.
Question 19
Which of the following statements is not true concerning policy implementation?
Question 19 answers
The discretion given to bureaucrats allows policy to be tailored to local conditions.
Bureaucratic discretion may mean that people are treated differently depending on where they live.
Policy implementation depends on officials and bureaucrats around the country.
Pluralism is the key to simple and efficient policy implementation.
Those who implement the policy have considerable discretion.

Question 20
“Muddling through” refers to government’s
Question 20 answers
formulating a plan of action without having all available facts.
taking little or no action, hoping that a problem will solve itself.
submitting a proposal for scrutiny by all interested parties.
taking decisive action to cross difficult political terrain.
incremental decision making approach.

Question 21
The underlying premise of the Earth Summit was that
Question 21 answers
Earth is facing serious environmental problems that must be addressed on a global basis.
peace can be achieved only by worldwide cooperation.
wealth should be redistributed from advanced to developing nations.
countries can advise one another on how to solve their environmental problems.
scientific analysis was needed to finally prove environmental damage by large, polluting corporations.

Question 22
Affirmative action is the
Question 22 answers
commitment by the federal government to require state governments to eliminate all forms of discrimination within their boundaries.
commitment first introduced in the California legislature to ensure equal employment opportunities for African Americans.
commitment by a business, employer, school, or other public or private institution to expand opportunities for women, African and Hispanic Americans, and members of other minority groups.
decision by a court in Hawaii to affirm the right of gays and lesbians to marry.
specific allowance of a certain number of positions to applicants.

Question 23
Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” refers to
Question 23 answers
the uncontrollable forces of nature that affect the economy.
a successful gothic novel Smith wrote, thereby gaining the income necessary to pursue less lucrative academic speculation.
the control that government exercises over the economy.
the economic force that converts individual pursuit of personal profit into societal good.
the fact that the basic cost of goods will always increase.

Question 24
Johnson’s Great Society policies were targeted at
Question 24 answers
the poorest states.
short-term relief of an economic depression.
chronic social problems requiring a long-term commitment.
middle- and upper-income voters.
depressed inner-city areas.

Question 25
Which of the following is most clearly supported by a majority of Americans?
Question 25 answers
Equality of outcome
Quotas
Equality of opportunity
Socialism
equal results

Question 26
Congress passes a bill authorizing spending limits this fiscal year for the FBI. This amount of money is termed the FBI’s
Question 26 answers
budget receipts.
budget outlay.
spending authorization.
fiscal outlay.
budget authority.

Question 27
Johnson’s War on Poverty
Question 27 answers
was very successful in redistributing income.
discouraged candidates and officeholders from paying attention to the poor.
eliminated poverty.
had the effect of making the poor aware of their political power.
further frustrated the poor by not meeting their expectations.
Question 28
U.S. relations with “big emerging markets” (BEMs) often typify the conflict between
Question 28 answers
freedom and order.
human rights policy and economic policy.
isolationism and globalism.
foreign aid and domestic stability.
personal liberties and lawmaking.

Question 29
As a result of U.S. tax policies, over time
Question 29 answers
all levels of society have seen increased income.
wealth has been redistributed from the wealthiest 10 percent to the bottom 10 percent.
no large change has occurred in the distribution of income, but the gap between the wealthy and the poor does continue to grow slowly.
the rich and the poor have both gained, but the middle class has lost out.
the poor have received the largest percentage of relief.

Question 30
The standard of “three times the cost of a minimally-nutritious diet” applies to
Question 30 answers
welfare.
the Guaranteed Income Assistance program.
the poverty threshold.
Medicaid.
the Assistance to Women, Infants and Children Program.

Question 31
The business cycle is
Question 31 answers
the process of investing and gaining a profit.
the period during which the federal government compiles the budget.
periods of expansion/inflation alternating with periods of contraction/unemployment.
the process of extracting money from the economy through taxes and then returning it through spending.
inflation and recession.

Question 32
Which of the following is true of the National Security Council?
Question 32 answers
Its activities are unrelated to those of the State Department.
There is variation in the extent to which presidents use it.
It is designed to be independent of the president.
It is an informal, impermanent group.
It is more closely aligned with the CIA than any other security component.

Question 33
Which of the following best describes the concept of civil rights?
Question 33 answers
Rights generally accorded all citizens
Political rights of speech and assembly
Rights extended to citizens from legislative action
The guarantee of life, liberty, and property granted to all citizens
Powers and privileges guaranteed to individuals and protected against arbitrary withdrawal by the government or individuals

Question 34
The life expectancy for babies born in the U.S. after 1995 is _____ when compared to other large-population nations, while the U.S. spends _____ on overall healthcare costs than those nations.
Question 34 answers
longer; less.
longer; more.
shorter; less.
shorter; more.
about average; more.

Question 35
If a global problem is “intermestic” it means that
Question 35 answers
internal strife within a country is spilling over into neighboring countries.
regional wars threaten the health and safety of surrounding countries.
the problem cannot be solved with military intervention.
military, economic and internal problems within a country require global intervention.
the problem is a blend of domestic and international issues.

Question 36
How would a libertarian such as Milton Friedman assess the social security program?
Question 36 answers
Social security is a reasonable limitation to personal freedom because it provides greater equality.
Social security should be reduced or eliminated because it limits freedom to achieve a measure of equality.
Social security is necessary as a mechanism to maintain order.
Social security poses no conflict between the values of freedom and equality.
Social Security should be eliminated because it cannot provide or fully fund guaranteed benefits.
Question 37
The “North Atlantic Treaty Organization” (NATO) was created in order to
Question 37 answers
protect U.S. interests in foreign countries.
disburse land occupied by U.S. forces after World War II.
negotiate disagreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
de-arm the Soviet Union.
protect Western Europe.

Question 38
Which provision prevented the collection of money from individuals (primarily black Americans) in order to be eligible to vote in primary and general elections?
Question 38 answers
The Poll Revenue Reduction Act
The Suffrage Fee Act
The Twenty-seventh Amendment
The Equal Protection Act
The Twenty-fourth Amendment

Question 39
The 1990 Budget Enforcement Act provided that any entitlement increase, such as adding a prescription drug benefit for the elderly on Medicare, must be combined with an equal mechanism to fund the new benefit in what is known as the
Question 39 answers
Equal Authorization principle.
reciprocity condition.
Enabling Act.
substitute funding requirement.
pay-as-you-go principle.

Question 40
For Native Americans, the 1970s and 1980s brought
Question 40 answers
reinforcement of Native culture.
a continuing deterioration of conditions at an increased rate.
loss of sovereign nation status.
a substantial movement off the reservations and into cities.
the return of some land and financial settlements for other losses.

Question 41
Public charities
Question 41 answers
must distribute money or goods to the needy.
do not exist any more in the United States.
perform some public good, providing something valuable to society.
are funded exclusively through generous private donations.
compete with the government to provide services.

Question 42
The purpose of social insurance programs is to
Question 42 answers
provide help to working people who are unemployed because of age, illness, or economic forces beyond their control.
provide a decent living wage to all Americans.
provide a nationwide system of health care.
ensure that people of all races and religions receive equal treatment.
establish a fair standard for the “living poor.”

Question 43
The basic dilemma posed by the CIA and the intelligence community in the United States concerns
Question 43 answers
the reconciling of covert activities with the principles of democracy.
inefficient political organization at the top of the national security bureaucracy.
whether a democracy can persevere in its long-term foreign policy strategies.
whether leaders in Congress can be trusted with secret national security information.
coordination of all information for the best possible use.

Question 44
Whereas former President Johnson initiated legislative solutions to reduce poverty, a conservative president’s approach would have been to
Question 44 answers
increase available assistance monetarily through pre-existing programs.
redefine the level of income necessary to qualify for assistance.
rewrite poverty enabling laws to permit more state and local government assistance.
create more tax breaks for entities where the poor work.
work to improve the overall economy, producing greater economic freedom for all.

Question 45
Policymaking in Washington, D.C., is a(n)
Question 45 answers
dynamic process in which many nongovernment organizations are respected participants.
relatively static process.
relatively simple process focused on single institutions.
incomprehensibly complex process.
frustrating and often failed attempt at change.

Question 46
The fiscal year has ended for the federal government and it appears revenue from corporate and personal income taxes and other tax forms were below what was forecast. This resulted in a shortfall that will be termed a(n)
Question 46 answers
net increase.
anticipated shortfall.
reconciliation.
readjustment.
deficit financing.

Question 47
In the 1994 budget, _____ replaced _____ as the largest yearly government expenditure.
Question 47 answers
interest on the national debt; Medicare
defense; social security
social security; defense
general social welfare programs; crime control
welfare; interest on the debt.

Question 48
The necessity of feedback loops and policy cycles means that the assumptions underlying policy making are that
Question 48 answers
technical improvements will continue to phase out the need for policy refinement.
good policy formulation will eventually eliminate the need for problem solving.
policies will always require refinement, change and analysis.
congressional deliberation of policies ends with the passage of new law.
a policy which fails to undergo this process is a failed policy.

Question 49
“Fair trade” policies
Question 49 answers
allow the government to intervene in trade policy to achieve a specific result.
allow for the unfettered operation of the free market.
require strong trade barriers in most industries.
seek to create order through international agreements outlawing policies such as bribery and “dumping.”
seek U.N. consent for approval of what is “fair.”

Question 50
Those who want an Equal Rights Amendment in spite of recent rulings and laws protecting equal rights claim that
Question 50 answers
Congress is a sexist organization that has not and will not support women.
federal laws and court rulings can be overturned in state courts.
women deserve their own amendment because of past discrimination.
women could lose their rights if the Supreme Court reversed its decisions and legislators repealed the statutes.
the Constitution specifically protects all other groups except women.

Question 51
The progressive income tax is one way to
Question 51 answers
promote economic freedom.
promote economic equality.
insure equality of economic outcome.
accomplish all of the above.
accomplish none of the above.

Question 52
Which of the following best describes Congress and the Supreme Court on the issue of civil rights since the late 1980s?
Question 52 answers
Congress has narrowed protection, and the Supreme Court has expanded it.
Both institutions have worked in tandem to continue expanding civil rights.
The institutions have worked together to close loopholes in the old law.
Both institutions have consistently restricted civil rights.
The Supreme Court has narrowed protection, and Congress has expanded it.

Question 53
The Federal Reserve System should be the central institution for the conduct of economic policy, according to
Question 53 answers
advocates of laissez-faire economics.
supply-side economists.
monetarists.
advocates of fiscal policy.
Congress.

Question 54
The American force sent to drive Iraq from Kuwait
Question 54 answers
was joined by NATO forces only.
was authorized to go to war by the U.N. with British assistance only.
did so unilaterally, without assistance.
fought side by side with Soviet troops.
was joined by forces from Europe and the Middle East.
Question 55
The actor or institution best positioned to overcome pluralist pressures and produce coherent policy in the national interest is
Question 55 answers
Congress.
the state legislatures.
the bureaucracy.
the president.
interest groups.

Question 56
Whereas the Johnson administration’s approach to social welfare was concerned with _____, the Reagan administration’s approach was concerned with _____.
Question 56 answers
equality over freedom; freedom over equality
freedom over equality; equality over freedom
long-term poverty; short-term poverty
short-term poverty; long-term poverty
liberty over freedom; freedom over fairness

Question 57
The House Armed Services Committee and the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee are _____ committees.
Question 57 answers
authorization
appropriations
tax
select
joint

Question 58
A Canadian American is denied an opportunity to buy a house because of his country of origin and mortgage company policies. Under the 14th Amendment, civil rights law and Supreme Court decisions, his proper course of action would
Question 58 answers
not include a lawsuit remedy because the law covers only racial discrimination.
include suing the mortgage company only if the mortgage company is run by a group of minority interests.
include a lawsuit for racial discrimination.
be to lobby Congress for expansion of the Civil Rights Act to include such possibilities.
be to apply for an exception to be made for a special case so his racial discrimination case could then be considered.

Question 59
An Indian claims commission was created in 1946
Question 59 answers
to compensate Native Americans for land that had been taken from them.
to hear criminal cases on the reservations.
to settle disputes among various tribes.
as part of an agreement designed to end the battle at Wounded Knee.
to establish an entity for claims against Native Americans to be heard.

Question 60
The United States was created on and expanded into territory once held by Native Americans through
Question 60 answers
a series of treaties approved and honored by both sides.
purely defensive reactions to Indian attacks on European territory.
gradual assimilation of the two cultures.
deception and the use of raw military power.
Native American culture, which did not believe in protesting such action.

Question 61
The President responds to allegations of a sluggish, underperforming domestic economy by getting Congress to agree to a $600 child care tax credit for parents as well as reducing government spending for international security. This is known as
Question 61 answers
market manipulation.
fiscal policy.
income redistribution.
altering money supply.
consumer processing.

Question 62
The effective desegregation of public schools in the South resulted from
Question 62 answers
President Kennedy’s use of federal troops to ensure the safety of James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.
President Eisenhower’s dispatch of federal troops to protect black children sent to white schools in Birmingham, Alabama.
The passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
The announcement of the Brown v. Board of Education decisions in 1954 and 1955.
The popular decisions reached by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Question 63
The key effect of the Marshall Plan
Question 63 answers
saved Korea from Chinese invasion.
resulted in Soviet withdrawal of troops from the South Pacific.
made European countries better able economically to resist Soviet interference.
prevented Japan from engaging in foreign trade.
weakened Soviet abilities to develop nuclear weapons.

Question 64
A necessary resource for participation in policymaking in an issue network seems to be
Question 64 answers
money.
access to the president.
legal training.
networking knowledge.
policy expertise.

Question 65
Between 1966 (the beginning of Johnson’s Great Society) and 1999, how much had the distribution of income between rich and poor changed?
Question 65 answers
Very little; the gulf between the two stayed about the same.
Somewhat; the poor are now slightly worse off than they were in 1966.
Greatly; the rich were much richer relative to the poor than in 1966.
Greatly; the poor were relatively better off than in 1966.
The percentage of income distribution has completely reversed for the rich and poor.

Question 66
Those who opposed the creation of the Medicare program in the 1960s correctly predicted that
Question 66 answers
the elderly would be suspicious and unwilling to use it.
it would be proven unnecessary because of the constantly improving private insurance plans.
the health benefits provided by Medicare would lead to higher birthrates and overpopulation.
the program would become enormously expensive.
it would decrease the cost of healthcare in the country.

Question 67
The Equal Rights Amendment was passed
Question 67 answers
by both houses and signed into law.
by the House but failed in the Senate.
by both houses but fell three states short of ratification.
and ratified but was overturned by the Supreme Court.
by a three-fourths vote of the state legislatures.

Question 68
The concept of mutual assured destruction meant that
Question 68 answers
a nuclear attack guaranteed the annihilation of the victim.
if either of the two major superpowers attacked the other with nuclear weapons, the victim could still retaliate and destroy the attacker.
a nuclear attack had to be coordinated with a conventional invasion to ensure the defeat of the enemy.
the nuclear weapons of the United States were regularly tested and inspected to ensure their readiness.
weapons systems in the U.S. and Soviet Union had capabilities of intercepting and destroying a nuclear launch by the other.

Question 69
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 was a break from previous education policy because
Question 69 answers
Lyndon Johnson overrode a congressional veto of the legislation.
it provided for non-means-tested benefits for all schoolchildren.
it was unanimously disparaged by educators across the country.
it was the first time the national government provided aid directly to local school districts.
the states were free to administer federal dollars as they saw fit.

Question 70
In analyzing voting trends from the 2000 presidential election, a group that both candidates may not target heavily because of their lack of voter turnout is
Question 70 answers
disabled veterans.
housewives.
Black Americans.
Hispanic Americans.
Native Americans.

Question 71
According to the text, the growing number of players involved in foreign policymaking includes all of the following except
Question 71 answers
the Department of Agriculture.
the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
the Commerce Department.
the Department of Energy.
the State Department.

Question 72
Today the Medicare system of payments
Question 72 answers
encourages patients to remain in the hospital.
discourages doctors from hospitalizing patients.
encourages hospitals to discharge patients quickly to reduce costs.
encourages hospitals to keep patients longer than is really necessary.
discourages the elderly from seeking care.

Question 73
The timetable for the congressional budgeting process
Question 73 answers
has never been implemented.
is followed strictly without missing deadlines.
has been modified several times, and deadlines are often missed.
was followed until the 1974 Budget and Impoundment Control Act eliminated it.
closely corresponds to that of the executive branch.

Question 74
Before the New Deal, the major assistance resource for the poor and unemployed was
Question 74 answers
state programs.
social insurance.
comprehensive federal benefit programs.
private charity.
federal poverty assistance grants.

Question 75
In United States v. Virginia (1996), the Supreme Court declared that
Question 75 answers
a college or university may admit whomever it pleases.
programs that discriminate on the basis of gender will be given the same special scrutiny as racially discriminatory programs.
institutions of higher learning have an affirmative duty to give preference to women and minorities.
all-male colleges are acceptable as long as there are equivalent women’s schools.
states that deny out-of-state minority applicants will lose federal funding.

Question 76
The disabled rights movement stems from
Question 76 answers
disabled World War I veterans’ returning home to a country inhospitable to their needs.
people disabled as a result of birth defects.
disabled Vietnam War veterans’ returning home to a country inhospitable to their needs.
the disabled rights movement of the 1960s.
disabled World War II veterans’ returning home to a country inhospitable to their needs.

Question 77
Implementation of a policy, such as crime prevention, requires all of the following except
Question 77 answers
allowing local bureaucracies flexibility to best meet their own needs and conditions.
differential treatment of criminal offenders by different law enforcement entities.
local, state and national officials access to bureaucratic resources around the country.
a pluralistic approach to simple and efficient implementation for best results.
different evaluations of policy successes or failures.

Question 78
A group of people who were practicing civil disobedience in the early ’60s but who became increasingly frustrated with their lack of accomplishment would probably have done what in the latter ’60s?
Question 78 answers
Abandoned its goals.
Shifted their focus.
Turned to elections as a tool.
Encountered and increasingly used violence.
Seen their earlier actions confirmed by favorable court rulings.

Question 79
The provision of social welfare policy
Question 79 answers
exists to assist the government with tax efforts.
depends on the occurrence of a major national crisis.
only occurs in countries that have flagging economies.
is based on the premise that individual success or failure should not be impacted by government policies.
is based on the premise that society has an obligation to provide for the basic needs of its members.

Question 80
The role of appropriations committees is to
Question 80 answers
monitor overall spending.
oversee implementation of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act.
authorize spending in particular legislative areas.
offer a comprehensive budget-review process.
decide which programs will be funded.
Question 81
A college athletics department that prevents female basketball athletes from receiving scholarships as do male basketball athletes would lose federal financial aid assistance in what area, subject to what case?
Question 81 answers
The entire college; Bakke v. University of Southern California.
The women’s studies program; Parks v. College of DuPage.
The athletics department; Grove City College v. Bell.
The academic scholarship department; Anthony v. University of Alabama.
The financial aid office; Federal Department of Education v. Kennedy.

Question 82
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided for all of the following except
Question 82 answers
equal access to public accommodations regardless of race, religion, or national origin.
equal employment opportunities, regardless of race.
withholding federal grants-in-aid from state programs that discriminated on the basis of race.
elimination of the poll tax as a requirement for voting.
strengthen voting rights legislation.

Question 83
The social security old-age benefits program is
Question 83 answers
a savings program in which each person’s contributions are set aside in an account for his or her retirement.
funded by individual contributions and administered by the states.
funded by revenues from state and local taxes.
a system in which contributions paid by today’s workers support today’s elderly.
a program funded by paycheck deductions which are held “in trust” until eligibility.

Question 84
Tax policy is used to
Question 84 answers
raise revenue.
promote equality.
control the economy.
do all of these.
do none of these.

Question 85
Who of the following was one of the first women’s rights activists?
Question 85 answers
Diane Joyce
Phyllis Schlafly
Christine Hefner
Susan B. Anthony
Eleanor Roosevelt

Question 86
The Social Security program is projected to bankrupt itself in the near future without reforms, largely due to
Question 86 answers
political refusal to increase payroll taxes.
a poorly performing economy.
poorer performance than projected on government investments in the trust fund.
a large expansion of benefits.
longer life spans and lower birth rates.

Question 87
The purpose of policy evaluation is to
Question 87 answers
estimate the direct budgetary cost of a proposed bill.
discover wasteful or redundant programs that can be conveniently cut.
conduct a careful examination of the nation and its problems to formulate the agenda.
examine those responsible for creating the policy.
study an existing policy to discover what is working, what is not working, and what alternatives might work better.

Question 88
The best description of the way that U.S. military forces have been used is that they have
Question 88 answers
engaged in several declared wars and numerous other small operations without a declaration of war.
conducted millions of small operations but have never been involved in a declared war.
fought only after a declaration of war.
never engaged in combat operations.
been formally engaged by congress numerous occasions.

Question 89
Approximately what percent of the U.S. long-term debt is held by foreigners?
Question 89 answers
80 percent
60 percent
20 percent
10 percent
40 percent

Question 90
The essence of supply-side economics is that
Question 90 answers
government spending should be used to “prime the pump” and aid economic recovery.
industry should be centrally coordinated to ensure a steady supply of necessary goods.
taxes should be cut, especially for the rich, thereby giving the rich more money to invest, thus increasing production.
government should tax heavily and redistribute the money in an equitable fashion.
business should be forced by government to allow inventories of goods to grow, thereby reducing costs.

Question 91
What was the nature of the early opposition to Medicare?
Question 91 answers
It was not favored by a majority of citizens.
It was viewed as a ploy by the insurance industry to make more money for itself.
The American Medical Association could not convince citizens of the merits of the program.
The elderly did not believe government was capable of administrating such a program.
It was viewed as socialized medicine and attacked during anticommunist crusades.

Question 92
Compared with the tax burdens in twenty-five other democratic nations, the tax burden in the United States is
Question 92 answers
in the top five.
in the top ten.
exactly in the middle.
near the bottom.
more than most democracies.

Question 93
Interest groups are influential participants in the policymaking process primarily because
Question 93 answers
Americans hold interest groups in such high esteem.
their financial donations to politicians consistently win them policy favors.
the Constitution provides that interest groups, or factions, must be consulted when policy is being formulated.
the fragmented nature of the American political system gives interest groups many points of access.
they are more efficient than government.

Question 94
Civil disobedience is
Question 94 answers
the willful but nonviolent breach of unjust laws.
the failure to fulfill a contractual agreement.
engaging in actions that are likely to promote social change.
engaging in actions that are likely to catalyze violent societal responses, such as riots.
the lawful refusal to follow a court order.

Question 95
The period of warmer relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began during President Nixon’s administration was called
Question 95 answers
the Nixon doctrine.
linkage.
d├ętente.
strategic parity.
containment.

Question 96
In the 1920s, Hispanic Americans were welcomed to the United States as a
Question 96 answers
part of America’s Good Neighbor Policy.
source of new talent and expertise for the practice of arid-zone agriculture.
source of cheap labor.
way to populate border areas of the Southwest.
method to prevent overcrowding in certain areas.

Question 97
Regarding economics and equality, how does the United States do in terms of income distribution?
Question 97 answers
Distribution of U.S. income is strikingly unequal and becoming more so.
It is difficult to measure U.S. income distribution.
Distribution of U.S. income is relatively equal and becoming more so.
U.S. income distribution tends to favor minorities.
The U.S. strongly favors the poor with income distribution.

Question 98
The lesson to be learned from the case study on the evaluation of AIDS is that
Question 98 answers
the quickest evaluation is usually the most accurate.
a long-range study is usually more accurate than are immediate impressions.
expensive policies are more effective than cheap ones are.
the conditions surrounding sensitive public issues are a good atmosphere for conducting policy evaluations.
implementation is very political in nature.

Question 99
Redistributional policies are usually granted to those who are
Question 99 answers
financially and socially independent.
unable to represent themselves politically.
living in an area targeted for public improvements.
particularly disadvantaged.
not qualified for the program but get its benefits anyway.

Question 100
The Americans with Disabilities Act
Question 100 answers
guarantees people with disabilities access to employment, transportation, and public accommodations.
covers people with AIDS, recovering alcoholics, and drug abusers.
is deliberately vague about the meaning of the term “disability.”
is all of these.
is none of these.