Multiple Choice Answers

President George W. Bush issues an order to mobilize state national guard units to action in the war in Iraq. This power is not written down specifically in the Constitution’s language detailing commander-in-chief responsibilities. What type of power is Bush exercising?
Judicial
Negotiated
Distributed
Enumerated
Implied

When plotted on a graph, public opinion on whether homosexuality is a choice produces a(n)
normal distribution.
skewed distribution.
bimodal distribution.
unstable distribution.
reliable distribution.

Colonial Catholics were faced with a difficult choice during the American Revolution because
they were loyal to Catholic France and Spain.
they were pacifists and refused to fight.
the colonial population was hostile and Protestant, but so was the English government.
the English government was officially Catholic.
religious freedoms were not protected under the Articles of Confederation but were under the Declaration of Independence.

In predicting a respondent’s attitude toward abortion, the most important characteristic is
gender.
ethnicity.
age.
religious denomination.
religiosity.
A business, organized like a fast-food restaurant, where individually-franchised stores are individually owned and operated but pay a small franchise fee to a national chain and must follow policies of the national chain, could best be described as approximating a(n)
confederation.
unitary system.
mixed federal structure.
executive structure.
local-control structure.

As a result of the Watergate affair’s discussion in the text, what conclusion can we draw about the Constitution?
The legislative and judicial branches lack the power to check presidential excesses.
The Constitution still provides an effective means of checking the abuse of power by a particular branch.
The Constitution loses popular legitimacy when public officials violate it.
The Constitution can be easily subverted by a determined president.
The president may successfully ignore a ruling of the Supreme Court.

The framer’s used public opinion to impact the
direct elections for the House of Representatives.
direct election for the presidency.
direct election for the Senate.
initiative and referendum.
use of public opinion polling.

Which of the following argued the Articles of Confederation’s main flaw was its failure to place enough power in the national government?
Republicans
Democrats
Antifederalists
Whigs
Federalists

Totalitarians and anarchists
currently control many governments.
are examples of theoretical types but have little current political significance.
are numerous but are not currently in control of any nation.
occupy the same place on the government-action continuum.
fail to be classified as ideologies in most countries.

Public opinion has all of the following characteristics except
varying over time, often dramatically.
placing boundaries on allowable types of public policy.
providing elected officials with a clear blueprint for action.
allowing citizens to register opinions on matters outside their expertise.
the government does not always do what people want.

New Federalism is a modern form of
cooperative federalism.
nationalist federalism.
marble-cake federalism.
fruitcake federalism.
dual federalism.

Children are likely to adopt their parents’ party identification when
parents discuss party politics with children.
parents refrain from forcing their views on children.
at least one parent has worked for a party.
both parents vote regularly.
both parents strongly identify with the same party.

Generally speaking, what is the capacity for change in public opinion in the United States?
Public opinion is capable of sudden, massive change.
Change in public opinion over time cannot be measured.
Public opinion changes with the economy.
Public opinion is incapable of change over time.
Public opinion is capable of significant change over time, but the process is usually slow.

One of the unexpected results of the Reagan administration’s cutback of aid to the states was
increased state action to promote equality.
a decline in state spending.
a reduction, by the states, of fundamental freedoms.
increased state efficiency in maintaining order.
more national fiscal accountability

If two-thirds of Congress refused to propose an amendment allowing gay marriage, which of the following ways exist to propose such an amendment?
Two-thirds vote to approve by state legislatures
Supreme Court ruling
Presidential executive order
Two-thirds of states request a national constitutional convention where the proposal passes
Three-fourths of state legislatures approve a national constitutional convention proposal

Opinions that have a normal distribution tend to support politicians who favor
policies of moderation.
the extreme liberal position.
the extreme conservative position.
government policies that distribute benefits and burdens fairly across various segments of society.
the status quo.

Polls and in-depth interviews of Americans show that most citizens interpret a political issue according to
the good of the nation.
the opinions of their peers.
complex decision-making models.
equality and fairness.
its impact on themselves and their family.

Awareness of political issues tends to increase
as a person’s level of formal education increases.
as a person’s exposure to television increases.
as a person’s exposure to television decreases.
with age.
through none of these.

Although the United States is a capitalist country, the government does intervene in the economic arena, primarily through
central planning for industry.
ensuring equal access to wealth.
government ownership of some key industries.
controlling public access to goods and services.
regulating private businesses

In contrast to the Articles of Confederation, the Constitution
grants greater political power to the states than to the national government.
places all power in a central government.
confers substantial powers on the national government at the expense of the states.
grants greater political power to local governments than to the states.
made the federal government directly responsible for local governments.
An implication of the normal distribution of public opinion along a liberal-conservative continuum is that U.S. politics and policies
tend to remain moderate or at the political center.
are consistently conservative, or right wing.
are consistently liberal, or left wing.
fluctuate widely across the political spectrum.
follow mostly opinions heard on television.
American Government exam