What is the trend concerning presidential power?
It fluctuates with the economy.
It has declined consistently
It is dependent upon the president’s party controlling Congress.
It has steadily increased.
The courts have reduced it significantly in several case rulings.
A once-solid congressional norm that has just about vanished during the last few decades is
Question 3 When the Senate votes to invoke cloture, it
limits the amount of time that may be spent debating a bill.
means a bill must either pass or fail without any amendments.
sends a bill back to its originating committee for amendment.
forwards a bill to a conference committee so that differences between the House and Senate versions may be worked out.
will result in the bill’s failure.
When Supreme Court justices compose their draft (preliminary) opinions, the main audience they are seeking to influence is
the other two branches of government.
other judges in future cases.
their colleagues on the Court.
lower court judges and attorneys.
Question 5 A president can be impeached by the _____ and tried and removed from office by the _____.
House and Senate; Supreme Court
Question 6 text Question 6 1 points Save
The main danger to a president who relies heavily on polls to make decisions is that he might
Question 6 answers
choose to disregard the results.
receive bad information from unscrupulous pollsters.
be afraid to defend unpopular views or to follow his own principles.
pay insufficient attention to interest groups.
be regarded as indecisive.
Applying the incumbency effect to the choices below, indicate the one person most likely to be guaranteed reelection.
a challenger with very large amounts of campaign donations.
an independent with a large and politically dedicated grassroots following.
a one-term House incumbent whose name has appeared frequently in local media for her efforts to improve an impoverished area of her district with the assistance of many local interest groups.
a long-time senior Senate incumbent who has been the subject of a probe into questionable campaign finance practices.
a one-term Senate incumbent whose vote to restrict environmental practices at a local factory was not popular with workers but who has also written and passed other legislation favorable to other industries in the area.
Private Spy magazine publishes a story claiming that Representative A has accepted bribes from foreign governments. Representative A sues the magazine for libel. To win a judgment, he must prove
that the magazine, with malicious intent, knowingly printed a false story.
only that the story was false.
only that the story brings the government into disrepute.
only that the magazine knowingly printed a false story.
that the magazine did not verify information from its outside source.
Thomas Jefferson, in a very characteristic legislative negotiation, got James Madison to vote for a debt plan he didn’t want in exchange for
Question 9 answers
giving southern states more federal dollars.
letting southern congresssmen claim more representation, giving southern states more representatives.
allowing the Great Compromise to pass.
allowing southern state governments more reduction in debt.
locating the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.
President Clinton’s legislative strategy early in his first term was
to try to shape public opinion and use it to sway Congress.
to govern based on the latest opinion polls.
to deal directly and secretly with Congress.
to passively wait for congressional action.
to initiate a bold legislative agenda and coerce members of Congress into approving it.
Which of the following is an example of a delegated power?
The War Powers Resolution of 1973
President Nixon’s imposition of wage and price controls
President Lincoln’s expansion of the military during the Civil War
A televised presidential address in which the president asks the American people to urge their member of Congress to pass a bill
A power the President holds in reserve
President Nixon’s imposition of wage and price controls was an example of
the constitutional provision that the president “shall regulate the economy.”
an inherent power.
the commander-in-chief powers.
a congressional delegation of power to the president.
A president’s personality characteristics
once were a more important influence on behavior and performance than they are now.
are overshadowed by constitutional prescriptions.
have an important influence on the president’s success or failure in office.
have little or no effect on a president’s conduct once in office.
will immediately mean success or failure in gaining congressional support.
According to Alexander Hamilton in Federalist No. 78, the power of judicial review
reflects the will of the people as it is embodied in the Constitution.
violates the principle of checks and balances.
is inconsistent with the Constitution.
is inherently antidemocratic.
implies an ability of the court to usurp the power of other branches.
The original draft of the Constitution did not include a bill of rights because
the people’s rights are spelled out elsewhere in the Constitution.
the framers believed that the Declaration of Independence adequately identified the people’s basic rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
the framers believed that a bill of rights was not necessary because the Constitution spelled out the extent of the national government’s power.
all of these.
none of these.
The most powerful leader in the House of Representatives is the
president pro tempore.
vice president of the United States.
Speaker of the House.
Clerk of the House.
The good faith exception allows
the state to introduce evidence at trial if that evidence was seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant.
the state to exempt a person from punishment for a crime if that person did not understand that their action was criminal.
individuals to publish any material they wish, as long as they believe that material to be factually correct.
people to be excused from jury duty if they can demonstrate that they have given their best effort in performing other civic duties.
a mistake in securing evidence to be considered neutrally by a jury.
The reason most people are not chosen as judicial nominees is because of their
judicial voting record.
conduct while an attorney.
answers on the judicial questionnaire.
Which of the following is not a reason for the growth of government?
Ambitious officials seeking new programs and services
The increasing complexity of society
The decreasing need for governmental regulation of social relationships
Public acceptance of a government role in providing social welfare
pubic demand for increased public services
In _____, the Supreme Court held that “fighting words” do not convey ideas and thus are not subject to First Amendment protection.
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964)
Miller v. California (1973)
Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Schenck v. U.S. (1919)
A vote on a bill in the Senate results in a 50 to 50 tie. What would likely be the official outcome of the vote on the bill?
It will have to be withdrawn and submitted at a later time when one additional vote can be secured.
It is killed.
The president’s party will prevail.
The parties will reach a compromise in the conference committee.
The leadership will canvas members to change the one vote needed for passage.
Which of the following is considered a model of effective crisis management?
Kennedy and the Cuban missile crisis
Reagan and the TWA hijacking
Reagan and the Grenada invasion
Carter and the Iranian hostage crisis
Bush and the Iraqi War.
A congressional representative who steadfastly clings to his or her position, refusing to yield or negotiate, would
be admired by colleagues for his or her consistency.
be typical of contemporary legislators.
probably be selected for a leadership role.
be violating the congressional norm of bargaining.
find it difficult to get his or her legislation passed.
The large American bureaucracy is most conducive to a system of _____ democracy.
The most powerful person in the Senate is the
president pro tempore.
The rules that govern floor debate in the House of Representatives
must be agreed upon by all the members.
are a tool the majority party uses to help it control the legislative process.
are neutral and assure a fair hearing for all sides.
encourage the development of partisan hostilities.
often result in deadlocked legislation the leadership must negotiate.
Which of the following influences a president the most?
The White House Staff
The National Security Council
U.S. Supreme Court rulings
A speech encouraging people to actively harass people entering abortion clinics and detain those people, if possible, would violate the standard established in
Smith v. City of Chicago.
Balke v. California.
Near v. Minnesota.
Brandenburg v. Ohio.
Schenk v. U.S.
How much of the Bill of Rights has been absorbed under the Fourteenth Amendment and made binding on the states?
Almost all of the provisions
Only the provisions of the First Amendment
Only criminal proceedings provisions
All of the provisions
none of the provisions
When the majority in Congress is of the same party as the president,
Congress still retains its power to debate, shape, pass, or defeat legislation proposed by the president.
the president chooses the majority party’s congressional leadership.
the president chooses the major committee chairpersons.
interest groups are less active in congressional politics.
the president controls all votes on legislation or members lose committee assignments.
Question 31 text
Excluding formally stated missions and operating rules, what most effects an agency’s behavior?
The bureaucratic culture of an agency
Whether its employees are patronage or civil service employees
Its appointed head
Which of the following best describes government corporations?
Businesses that have gone bankrupt and have been taken over by the government
Agencies that privately see to the personal needs of high-level bureaucrats
Business enterprises that the government has seized because of failure to pay taxes
Government agencies that provide services that could be provided by the private sector
Government partnerships with private industry
To the extent that independent agencies (such as the Environmental Protection Agency) are under anyone’s control, they are under the control of
the department responsible for their area of activity.
a joint committee of Congress.
the cabinet member to whom they report.
federal regulators who oversee their actions.
The police arrest a criminal suspect, keep him in a locked room, tell him he is legally obligated to answer their questions, and claim he has no right to see an attorney until he has confessed. If this case goes to court, the confession
is admissible as evidence, because no physical force was used to obtain it.
is admissible as evidence, because the defendant is expected to know his rights regardless of what the police say.
cannot be used, because only physical evidence is of use in court.
cannot be used, because the defendant was not told of his right to an attorney and his right to remain silent.
can be used only to demonstrate the suspect lied.
When designing the presidency, delegates to the Constitutional Convention were torn between
concern for equality and concern for freedom.
a hereditary and an elected executive.
commitment to democracy and fear of the people.
checks and balances and divided government.
fear of a powerful presidency and a desire for strong leadership for the new government.
In the short term, the Gulf War had the domestic political impact of _____ President Bush’s popularity.
having no effect on
The phrase divided government refers to
the Democrats and Republicans agreeing on a coalition government.
the separation of powers among the three branches.
specialization in Congress based on committees.
different parties controlling the presidency and Congress.
Congress and the President being opposed by the Supreme Court.
In reaching their decisions, state supreme courts can rely on the
U.S. Constitution and the constitution of their state.
state constitution only.
legal guidance given by their state legislature.
U.S. Constitution only.
U.S. Supreme Court opinions.
Under what conditions is organized prayer permitted in public schools during school hours?
If a poll of parents indicates that no religious group is offended
If all religious groups are involved in choosing or writing the prayer
Under no condition
If the prayer does not mention God
If parents sign consent waivers
Most political appointees come from
the president’s campaign staff.
business, universities, and government itself.
political party workers.
careers that allowed them to be involved with the new president in other endeavors.
The Supreme Court declared prayer in public schools unconstitutional in
Minersville School District v. Gobitis (1940).
West Virginia State Board v. Barnette (1943).
Engel v. Vitale (1962).
Epperson v. Arkansas (1968).
Near v. Minnesota (1931).
To appeal means to
make a plea on national television.
take a case to a higher court.
submit a “friend of the court” brief.
argue a case before a judge or a court.
ask for a reduction in sentence imposed.
Since the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the Supreme Court has used judicial review to invalidate _____ provisions of federal law.
more than 2,000
more than 500
a few more than 150
A report that a major business or industry is in trouble is likely to be met by
industry demands to be allowed to handle the problem itself, with no government interference.
calls for government to assume full control and ownership of the industry.
calls for the government to step in to protect businesses and consumers who might be hurt by a failure.
calls for everyone involved to accept the discipline of the market.
an attitude of refusal for government to provide assistance.
States refused to adopt the Constitution because it
did not contain a Bill of Rights.
did not include voting rights for blacks.
did not include voting rights for women.
did not separate powers among branches of government.
included too much delegation of powers to the states.
An incumbent advantage permitting members of Congress to keep in touch with constituents by sending mailings at taxpayer expense is known as
the franking privilege.
If a local paper is prevented by the city council from publishing a damaging article about one of the council members until the council can conduct its own investigation, this practice would be known as
The birth deformities produced by the drug Thalidomide in the 1960s
were a direct result of deregulation of the drug industry in the United States.
illustrate the potential danger of relaxing the FDA drug-licensing procedures.
were the result of drug interactions, which the FDA cannot control.
were the result of human error in interpreting standard laboratory tests.
demonstrate the willingness of an agency to please those affected by its rules.
House incumbents may be considered vulnerable if they
won their last election by a slim margin.
have been involved in a major scandal.
have a political ideology inconsistent with that of their district.
have done all of these.
have done none of these.
Every two years, _____ of the Senate must stand for re-election.
The U.S. Congress is criticized for being too
closed to interest group input.
majoritarian and therefore insensitive to the needs of special interests.
pluralistic at the expense of the national interest.
quick to pass important pieces of legislation.
fragmented by special interests.
Most democracies outside the United States have a(n)
legislative oversight system.
Who presides at the conference?
The Solicitor General
The Attorney General
The Chief Justice
The senior justice in the majority
The administrative law clerk
The history of free speech in the United States shows that
the right of free speech has been inviolate since the Constitution was adopted.
speech rights are far more limited today than they were in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
no institution of government has ever taken this right seriously.
the principle is honored, but individuals may be prosecuted for speech that is very likely to have certain types of effects.
the Supreme Court is more and more likely to restrict speech.
According to the Supreme Court in Bowers v. Hardwick, homosexual relations between consenting adults in the privacy of their own home
are protected under the Bill of Rights.
are not protected under the Bill of Rights.
cannot be regulated by state governments.
may be regulated only by Congress.
is a prohibited extension of search and seizure laws.
Although judges are constrained by statutes and precedents in making their decisions, some judges interpret the law in light of
their personal beliefs.
their direct party ties.
what they read in the newspaper.
their childhood experiences.
In Shaw v. Reno (1993), the Supreme Court ruled that the districts in the case in question were an example of
“separate but unequal.”
“separate and equal.”
“taking all necessary actions to further racial equality.”
Whereas civil rights may be defined as what the government must provide its citizens, civil liberties may be defined as what the government
must do to its citizens.
cannot deny its citizens.
can do to its citizens.
may do to its citizens if it so chooses.
can take away from its citizens.
A congressional committee that holds a hearing to determine whether the Department of Agriculture is administering the food stamp program as Congress intended is engaging in
Cases in the U.S. courts of appeals are usually heard by
panels of two judges.
panels of three judges.
a single judge.
panels of nine judges.
a bench of 30 judges.
The thousands of cases that come to the Supreme Court for review are initially screened and analyzed by
the solicitor general.
the chief justice.
each justice individually.
the Administrative Court.
The president can veto any legislation enacted by Congress except
bills that address an issue in the Bill of Rights.
bills that address foreign policy issues.
joint resolutions that propose constitutional amendments.
declarations of war.
executive branch budget bills.
The legal powers of bureaucratic agencies derive from
a congressional grant of authority.
a constitutional mandate.
delegation from the president.
According to the Constitution, the minimum age requirement for presidential candidates is the age of
What overall effect has the growth in staff and the number of committees had on the two legislative bodies?
Resulted in increased efficiency.
Increased communication with members in the districts.
Increased oversight abilities of executive branch agencies.
Decreased the power of both bodies due to internal power struggles.
Served to deadlock many crucial decisions.
In the congressional setting, casework refers to
members being honest with their constituents.
challengers demanding honesty of incumbents.
members helping constituents with problems.
members’ right to send mail free of charge.
Given the distribution of public opinion in the United States, a proponent of majoritarian democracy might argue that
state governments may provide support to particular religions.
government should provide no support whatsoever to any religion.
government should provide support to Protestant religions only.
government’s protection of religious minorities is a justified safeguard.
government can provide support to religion as long as it favors no particular religion.
Plea bargaining is a process by which
a defendant makes an emotional plea for mercy from the court.
a defendant pleads guilty in exchange for a reduced sentence.
jurors bargain among themselves to reach a verdict.
civil cases involving large sums of money are settled out of court.
the prosecuting attorney waives the jury process.
In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court struck down state abortion laws on the grounds that
the government is never permitted to regulate morality.
only the federal government has the right to regulate reproductive decisions.
the unborn possess the same rights as any citizen.
childbearing decisions are protected from government interference by the right to privacy protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
criminal justice protections extended to the unborn.
_____ is the justices’ most important legal function.
Administering the appellate court system
Upholding constitutional challenges
Until 1913, U.S. senators were selected by
the electoral college.
the House of Representatives.
The rational-comprehensive model of policymaking is unrealistic because
it is difficult for policymakers to define precise values and goals.
the policy selected cannot always be the most effective means to the goal.
comprehensive investigations to all solutions to any specific problem would be too time consuming.
all of these are true.
none of these are true.
Which of the following members of Congress is most likely to be re-elected?
Representative A, who spends virtually all of her time in Washington but has a staff in her district that handles casework
Representative B, who devotes most of her and her staff’s time to initiating and passing legislation
Representative C, who spends a lot of her time in Washington raising money from PACs and working on foreign policy matters
Representative D, who is not considered an influential or active member of Congress but is very visible in her district and has an efficient casework staff
Representative E, who is very loyal to the political party as is his staff.
Popular election of judges
occurs at all levels of American courts.
occurs in many states but nowhere in the federal system.
occurs only in federal courts.
has been suggested as a reform but is not currently used.
is declining in use.
The White House is willing to work with interest groups because they are
able to mobilize their constituents to contact members of Congress.
a resource Congress tends to ignore.
able to access financial resources that could be helpful to the president.
too powerful to be ignored.
In Agostini v. Felton (1997), the Court
emphasized that the First Amendment requires neutrality toward religion.
determined that under no circumstances can parochial schools hire public school teachers at taxpayer expense.
ruled that Christmas displays celebrate a national holiday and do not advance religion.
argued that any governmental involvement in religion is unconstitutional.
struck down “In God We Trust” as a national slogan.
If the president neither signs nor vetoes a bill within 10 days while Congress is in session, the bill
will be sent back to Congress.
will be recalled by Congress for further action.
has been pocket-vetoed.
A practical way to give the president greater control over the bureaucracy would be to
return to the patronage system.
insist on higher qualifications for top managers.
expand the number of presidential appointees.
offer better pay for appointed positions.
give him more budget control.
The presidential strategy of leading by courting public opinion
can be defended as a means of furthering majoritarian democracy.
was pioneered by the early presidents.
has declined in significance in recent years.
is considered by most to be an ineffective political strategy.
usually leads to ineffective leadership.
The powers of the president as outlined in the Constitution are
briefly stated and comparatively vague.
extensively and specifically described.
more elaborately described than are those of Congress.
specific enough to avoid disagreement over their extent.
very similar to a parliamentary executive.
When making contributions to candidates for Congress, PACs tend to show a preference for
candidates who are challenging incumbents.
The major criticism of the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade was that the
justices were writing their own policy preferences into law.
Constitution clearly bans abortion.
Court did not hear sufficient testimony before reaching its decision.
case should have been dismissed as moot.
law as applied was too narrow to fit any other precedent.
Which of the following voting behaviors by a representative indicates delegate behavior?
Agreeing to vote with the representative’s party on an issue.
Agreeing to vote with the president on a bill if the president campaigns for that representative at reelection time.
Voting the way a representative thinks best and against a large number of constituents because the representative knows whichever way the vote is cast, a large number of constituents will be offended.
Trading votes on an issue of low importance with another member to gain a voting favor on a later bill.
Voting the way the results of a telephone survey of district constituents indicated they preferred.
The national parties continue to be strong forces in the legislative process because:
they control the nomination of House and Senate candidates.
they provide most of the funding for House and Senate campaigns.
they determine who will get prime office space in the Capitol buildings.
party leaders can help rank-and-file members to get on preferred committees and to climb up the leadership ladder.
they often write and initiate proposed legislation.
When an interest group feels threatened by a government action, a likely response by government would be to
outlaw campaign contributions from that interest group.
pass further legislation restricting interest group access to government bureaucrats.
preserve or expand agencies that serve the interest group.
defend its actions in court.
Which court was created by name in the Constitution?
The U.S. District Court
The U.S. Supreme Court
The Federal Court of Claims
The U.S. Criminal Court
The U.S. Jurisdictional Court
The largest organizational unit in the executive branch is the
A _____ is a temporary committee established to deal with issues that either overlap or fall outside the areas of expertise of standing committees.
Most employees of the national government are employed
by independent regulatory commissions.
in patronage positions.
outside Washington, D.C.
inside Washington, D.C.
in support of congress and the Cabinet.
Meetings in which legislation is debated and amended are called _____sessions.
ex nihilo nihil fit
The influence of a president, according to Richard Neustadt, depends upon
the condition of the economy.
the professional reputation and prestige of the officeholder.
the management structure adopted by the presidential incumbent.
early legislative success with Congress.
public perception of the incumbent’s ethics.
If the chief justice is not in the majority when a case is decided, the responsibility for opinion assignment rests with the
most junior justice on the Court.
most senior associate justice in the majority.
chief justice, as in other cases.
most senior associate justice in the minority.
justice assigned by the Chief Justice.
Why does the cabinet not serve as an effective advisory body?
The cabinet is quite large and unwieldy.
Cabinet members have limited areas of expertise and cannot contribute much to deliberations on policy outside their own area.
Cabinet members may not be easy for the president to work with.
All of these are correct answers.
None of the above are correct answers.
Majoritarian decision making would reduce the size of the national bureaucracy; pluralist decision making
tends to increase it.
seeks to reduce it.
tends to reduce it.
ignores the issue.
makes more rational decision making occur before action is taken.
An underlying assumption of the concept of descriptive representation seems to be that
elected representatives should follow their own conscience.
any citizen can be represented by any congressional representative.
minorities can be effectively represented only by people of their own kind.
representatives should carefully heed public opinion polls.
the more people indicate what type of representative they want, the closer the representative is to voter preference.
In order to determine whether a movie fits the legal standard for obscenity, the work will be
scrutinized against federal standards only.
subjected to differing local standards.
determined to violate obscenity standards if only part of the work is somewhat obscene.
removed from public availability during its review.
kept in public circulation if the entire work is judged to be obscene if part of a press piece.
The American public generally
holds Congress as an institution in higher regard than it holds individual members of Congress.
holds individual members of Congress in higher regard than it holds Congress as an institution.
holds Congress in higher regard than it holds the president.
holds neither Congress nor its members in high regard.
holds the Supreme Court and Congress in equally-high regard.
All of the following have had input into presidents’ choices of federal judicial nominees except
the House Judiciary Committee.
U.S. senators from the state in which the judge will serve.
the American Bar Association.
the Department of Justice.
all of these.
Government corporations are most likely to be created when a service is for the public good and
the government can make a profit from engaging in it.
healthy competition exists between government and the private sector.
there is danger of corporate monopoly if the government fails to act.
large numbers of government employees are already trained in the service.
private industry cannot profitably provide the service.
The Supreme Court has consistently
supported the right to have time set aside for prayer in public schools.
avoided making decisions concerning prayer in public schools.
permitted prayer in public schools as long as it is nondenominational.
upheld the right to practice a moment of silence.
equated prayer in public schools with government support of religion