Multiple Choice Answers

1. If the concept is truck, the prototype might be: A. a Ford pick up. B. bulldozer. C. gravel eighteen wheeler. D. personnel carrier.

2. If the prototype is block or ball, the concept is: A. construction. B. toy. C. child. D. play.

3. All major cities have a post office. Abilene is a major city; therefore, Abilene has to have a post office. This is an example of a(n): A. algorithm. B. heuristic. C. syllogism. D. prototype.

4. Algorithms are very helpful in finding solutions to problems because, although we may not understand them, they: A. were created by people who do understand all algorithms. B. allow us to arrive at an answer rapidly. C. are shortcuts. D. guarantee a correct solution if followed.

5. A heuristic can be very helpful in solving a problem because: A. the solution is always accurate. B. heuristics are the result of research. C. it may be a shortcut. D. a single heuristic can be applied to most problems.

6. Both Albert’s mother and father had dropped out of high school. His brother left school in the eighth grade. Based on the performance of his family members Albert does not expect that he will complete high school. He has developed a(n): A. availability heuristic. B. syllogism. C. algorithm. D. means-end analysis.

7. Creative thinking tends to be: A. divergent thinking. B. convergent thinking. C. functional fixedness. D. dependent on algorithms.

8. “How are a cat and a dog alike?” An answer to this question requires: A. crystallized intelligence. B. intrapersonal intelligence. C. fluid intelligence. D. Eastern intelligence.

9. “Who was the first vice president of the United States?” The correct answer to this question requires: A. crystallized intelligence. B. intrapersonal intelligence. C. fluid intelligence. D. Eastern intelligence.

10. Based on the theory of multiple intelligences by Gardner most people exhibit: A. intelligences which function in isolation. B. a single intelligence. C. one dominate intelligence. D. all eight intelligences in different degrees.

11. The use of the lateral prefrontal cortex during intelligence testing indicates that: A. a global “workspace” exists in the brain. B. there is little neuroflexibility. C. the prefrontal cortex is the central receiving area for all incoming stimuli. D. there is no significant difference between special and verbal tasks.

12. The experimental rats were being raised in separate environments. One group lived in the traditional cage in a quiet, but well lighted room. They were supplied with plenty of food and water. The second group inhabited “Rat Disney Land.” There were colorful toys, exercise wheels, and mirrors. The experimenters talked to the rats in the second group and demonstrated concern. Based on the results of previous research the researchers expected: A. the rats in the first group to exhibit depression. B. the rats in the second group to become hyperactive and unable to focus on a task. C. the rats in the second group to make a higher score on an intelligence test. D. the rats in the first group to make a higher score on a test of intelligence.

13. The most frequently used intelligence test in the United States is: A. the Stanford-Binet Scale. B. the Binet Intelligence Test. C. the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III. D. the Bergman Intelligence Scale.

14. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale –III (WAIS-III) contains two parts: A. verbal and performance. B. written and verbal. C. measurement and written. D. performance and written.

15. One attribute that the Stanford-Binet, WAIS-III, and WISC-IV have in common is that they are all: A. timed. B. written. C. administered individually. D. group tests.

16. The entire class was in an uproar. The teaching assistant had proctored the exam while the professor was attending a conference and the test seemed unrelated to the chapters which they had studied. The students’ complaints are based on the test’s lack of: A. reliability. B. validity. C. aptitude. D. standardization.

17. The testing company has hired qualified people in the field to administer the new test bank to subjects of different ages and ethnic backgrounds. They need a sizable number of scores from inner city, urban, and country/small town subjects. Their goal is to gather sufficient data for test: A. validity. B. reliability. C. performance. D. standardization.

18. Nisa has grown up in a small village in the foothills. There was no electricity and water had to be hand pumped. They seldom saw people from the “outside.” When she entered school the bus had to pick her up at 6:30 am in order for her to arrive at school by 8:30 am. During the fourth grade the entire class was given a group intelligence test. Nisa did not score well because: A. the norms upon which the test was developed did not reflect her background. B. her background caused the relationship between reliability and validity to be inaccurate. C. she probably had difficulty learning to read. D. she did not understand test taking.

19. In their book The Bell Curve, Murray and Herrnstein supported their claim of intelligence differences between races as attributable to: A. the effect of environment on the development of intelligence. B. the extent to which intelligence is inherited. C. the lack of validity of intelligence tests. D. insufficient reliability of IQ scores.

20. One of the arguments against inherited racial differences in intelligence is based on data that shows: A. a college education reduces the gap between the IQ scores of white and black races. B. nutrition reduces the gap. C. scores for black test takers improve as they mature. D. white test takers plateau at about thirty-five-years of age.