Multiple Choice Answers

1. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is
adaptation.
resistance.
exhaustion.
flight or fight.
2. The concept of aggression cues is associated with
social learning theories.
observational learning theories.
frustration-aggression theory.
the work of animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz.
3. Aggressiveness builds up in people because of human nature. It can be safely expressed before it reaches a “boiling point” through the catharsis offered by aggressive sports and games. These kinds of ideas are associated with
observational learning theories.
social learning theories.
frustration-aggression theory.
instinct approaches to aggression.
4. Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is true?
Psychophysiological disorders are primarily mental disorders.
Accumulating hassles may well lead to a sudden onset of PTSD.
Continued exposure to stress is associated with the secretion of stress-related hormones.
Cataclysmic events such as earthquakes are, inevitably, the most devastating stressors for most people.
5. According to your text, whether you’re persuaded by a message will primarily depend on which factor?
Your characteristics, including your personality and intelligence
Whether you receive the message while at work or at home
Your perception or understanding of the recipient of the message
The nature of the message as it relates to your temperament

6. As discussed in your textbook, the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
is based on a culture-free questionnaire.
has revealed that most people aren’t prejudiced.
requires subjects to react to a series of black and white faces.
requires people to openly express and reveal their latent prejudices.
7. The more people there are at the scene of an accident, the less likely it is that individuals will step up to lend a hand. This phenomenon is referred to as
diffusion of responsibility.
antisocial behavior.
diffusion of interest.
crowd apathy.
8. The first stage in the GAS model of stress is
alarm and mobilization.
resistance.
analyzing a stressor.
adaptation.
9. With respect to the theory of cognitive dissonance, people can hold contradictory ideas in their minds. If you become aware of the dissonance between two ideas, you could pursue which of the following strategies to reduce the dissonance?
You can change the way you perceive the ideas by decreasing the importance of one of them.
You can modify your views of the two contradictory ideas.
You can tell yourself that the contradictory ideas are contradictory.
You can repress one of the cognitions into your unconscious mind and go about your day.
10. Mandy has decided that she has no control over the aversive stimuli she encounters at work and at home day by day. Thus, she has given up trying to make her life better. Psychologists would say Mandy’s worldview illustrates
emotion-focused coping.
learned helplessness.
learned avoidant coping.
problem-focused coping.
11. In general, the approach to stress embraced by psychoneuroimmunologists focuses on
psychological factors and the immune system.
the brain and the immune system.
the outcomes of stress.
the brain and the body.
12. Jason and Julia are preparing for a quiz in Psychology 101. Jason recites four reasons for seeking out a social support network. Julia, who has top grades in the class, gives her nod of approval to all but one of Jason’s list. Which one is she most likely to reject?
Group members can help a participant with practical things like finding a new job.
Being a member of a social support network can help reduce a person’s stress levels.
Support group membership can help a participant feel valued by others.
Being in a social support network helps a person learn how to win arguments.
13. Particular factors encourage people to be drawn into liking one another. In this context, the reciprocity
of liking effect is primarily associated with
propinquity.
exposure.
physical attractiveness.
similarity.
14. According to Sternberg, intimacy plus decision/commitment identifies
fatuous love.
liking.
true friendship.
companionate love.
15. Four steps are involved in a person’s decision to offer assistance in an emergency situation. The third
step is
interpreting the event as requiring someone to offer assistance.
assuming responsibility for rendering assistance.
appraisal of one’s skills and experience in dealing with emergencies.
deciding how to help.
16. Which of the following statements best illustrates the concept of the halo effect?
After Clark missed the foul shot, Coach Smart told him to try practicing for a change.
Observing that Lois is argumentative and abrasive, Leopold assumes she is a skilled liar.
On first meeting Sally, Harry recognized that he and Sally were like two peas in a pod.
Grenville maintains that Hannibal’s faults lie not with the stars but within his character.

17. Which statement best expresses the concept of the self-serving bias?
We attribute our successes to our skills and abilities and our failures to external factors.
We nearly always assume that other people’s failures are due to their personal characteristics.
We assume that situational causes are brought about by the environment.
We tend to think other people are similar to us, even when we first meet them.
18. In respect to the foundations of prejudice, social identity theory is associated with the concept of
self-fulfilling prophecy.
ethnocentrism.
stereotypical discrimination.
modern racism.
19. Two psychology students are in a heated discussion about the nature of prejudice. Mavis insists that that when people get their identity from membership in a political action group, they will generally express ethnocentrism. Martin argues that with or without ethnocentrism, social identity based in group membership is inevitably associated with the demonization of minority groups. Who is correct?
Both Mavis and Martin are correct.
Mavis is correct.
Neither Mavis nor Martin is correct.
Martin is correct.
20. Sternberg’s model of the kinds of love identifies which of the following basic components?
Commitment/decision
Sexuality
Spirituality
Consummate attraction
21. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that’s-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining
reciprocity.
compliance.
obedience.
conformity.
22. In the context of stress, the flip side of an uplift is
background chaos.
a hassle.
a personal stressor.
any cataclysmic event.
23. In the context of social cognition, what is the primary importance of schemas?
They provide accurate and truthful information about social situations and other people.
They help us differentiate good people from bad people.
They allow us to correctly identify the central traits of other people.
They help us organize, store, and recall information about other people.
24. On first meeting Ian Campbell from Edinburgh, Clark Mason, a native of Seattle, immediately decides that he and Ian have similar attitudes, feelings, and worldviews. Psychologists say this sort of thing illustrates the
fundamental attribution error.
self-serving bias.
assumed-similarity bias.
“birds of a feather” error.
25. In hearing a persuasive message, some people will evaluate it in terms of factors that have nothing to do
with the content of the message. When this happens, psychologists speak of _____ route processing.
incidental
inductive
central
peripheral