Multiple Choice Answers

Question 1
Which of the following statements is true about the definition of leadership effectiveness?
A. Leadership effectiveness depends on the goals of the organization.
B. Leadership effectiveness must take into account the personality of the leader.
C. Leadership effectiveness is the same regardless of the organization.
D. Leadership effectiveness is always based on performance.

Question 2
Which one of the following factors is the key element of most definitions of leadership effectiveness?
A. employee satisfaction
B. stakeholder needs
C. focus on outcome
D. financial measures

Question 3
The three key elements of leadership effectiveness are:
A. goal achievement, smooth internal processes, external adaptability.
B. follower satisfaction, leader control, empowerment.
C. goal achievement, stock prices, customer satisfaction.
D. flexibility, follower satisfaction, stakeholder satisfaction.

Question 4
Leadership and management become more closely similar when considering the issue of:
A. effectiveness and competence.
B. national and organizational culture.
C. individual traits.
D. organizational performance.

Question 5
According to research by Mintzberg, the job of a manager is characterized by:
A. many cultural encounters.
B. a wide variety of tasks and many interruptions.
C. a series of well-defined activities that start with planning and end in controlling.
D. political activities that are essential to being effective.

Question 6
Helgesen called the “female” style of management:
A. non-hierarchical charisma.
B. interconnected management.
C. participative management.
D. the web.

Question 7
Leaders are often role models for their followers. Recent research suggests that leaders must also pay attention to:
A. sexual harassment and its negative impact.
B. the use of power.
C. how outsiders impact their followers.
D. their own emotional reactions.

Question 8
Determining span of control, reporting relationships, and degree of formalization and specialization are all elements of which function of how leaders shape organizational culture?
A. developing strategies and structures
B. influencing hiring decisions
C. creating effective reward systems
D. role modeling

Question 9
The key argument against the impact of leadership centers around the idea that:
A. most leaders are simply not effective.
B. social and environmental factors affect organizations more than leaders.
C. culture and organizational rigidity do not allow leaders to make their mark.
D. other managers impact organizations as much as leaders.

Question 10
In the United States there is a ‘population hourglass’ whereby the largest percentage of the population is older baby boomers, the millennial generation is at the bottom and generation Xers are in the middle. The challenges arising from issues regarding the differences in these age groups represents which major factor fueling organizational change and their leaders?
A. increased globalization
B. employee expectations
C. political changes
D. demographic changes

Question 11
National organizational heritage refers to:
A. the wealth of each organization.
B. the culture of different organizations.
C. the management styles based on national cultures.
D. organizational events that shape national culture.

Question 12
People from high context cultures typically:
A. rely on non-verbal cues and situational factors to communicate.
B. rely on the written word and clearly stated statement to communicate.
C. value leaders who take care of people.
D. value leaders who focus on the task.

Question 13
Which of the items is one of Hofstede’s five dimensions of culture?
A. Power distance
B. Egalitarian
C. High context
D. Performance orientation

Question 14
Leaders from individualistic cultures would best be characterized by:
A. engaging in team-oriented activities.
B. seeking recognition.
C. demonstrating high levels of participation behaviors.
D. employing supportive leader behaviors.

Question 15
Tolerance of uncertainty refers to:
A. how much uncertainty exists in the political system.
B. how quickly managers make decisions.
C. the extent to which employees rely on their manager for decision making.
D. how comfortable people are with ambiguity

Question 16
When a culture is high in uncertainty avoidance, people are likely to:
A. search for absolute truths.
B. expect their leaders to allow participation.
C. rely on their community for information.
D. have a short term orientation.

Question 17
Individualistic cultures tend to:
A. expect people to conform to social norms before they become independent.
B. emphasize performance over social support.
C. focus on individual achievement.
D. value material goods.

Question 18
Japan and Korea are examples of:
A. loose cultures.
B. individualistic cultures.
C. vertical collectivistic cultures.
D. cultures that are comfortable with uncertainty.

Question 19
Vertical/horizontal dimension impacts leadership because:
A. it deals with people.
B. it relates to how rules are used.
C. it focuses on how leaders use participation in their culture.
D. it affects views of hierarchy and equality.

Question 20
__________ is the degree to which a culture values fairness, generosity, caring and kindness.
A. Uncertainty avoidance
B. Humane orientation
C. In-group collectivism
D. Future orientation
Question 1
Prior to the industrial revolution, the study of leadership relied on:
A. scientific studies.
B. intuition and description.
C. case analyses.
D. the trait approach to understand leaders.

Question 2
The modern scientific study of leadership can be divided into three eras. These are:
A. trait, behavior, contingency.
B. charismatic, visionary, exemplary.
C. case studies, research, theory building.
D. personality, event-based, complex analysis.

Question 3
Which of the following factors contributed to the development of the behavior approach to leadership?
A. the need to find leaders during World War II
B. the development of personality testing
C. the use of behavioral surveys to measure traits
D. access to military leaders

Question 4
The major shortcoming of Lewin’s early research on leader behavior was that:
A. the behaviors were difficult to define clearly.
B. the researchers could not measure the leader behaviors consistently.
C. it was not clear which behavior was most effective.
D. only task behavior was shown to improve performance.

Question 5
The two primary leadership behaviors that are still in use are:
A. laissez-faire and charismatic motivation.
B. autocratic and democratic.
C. visionary and practical.
D. consideration and initiation of structure.

Question 6
The primary assumption of the contingency approach to leadership is:
A. leadership depends on culture.
B. what works depends on the situation.
C. behavior of leaders is contingent on their personality.
D. leadership effectiveness is contingent on the role of followers.

Question 7
According to Fiedler, __________ is the most important factor in any leadership situation.
A. leader-member relations
B. task structure
C. follower maturity
D. position power

Question 8
According to the Contingency Model, task-motivated leaders will be most effective in which type of situation?
A. moderate control
B. low control
C. high-control
D. all situations

Question 9
Anwar is a task-motivated leader who is in a high situational control environment. Based on Fiedler’s Contingency Model, he is likely to:
A. be tense, overbearing, and over controlling.
B. be confident, considerate, and focused on removing obstacles.
C. be considerate, open to suggestions and concerned with resolving conflicts.
D. Be directive, serious, and with little concern for others.

Question 10
Which of the following principles is the basis for the Normative Decision Model?
A. Empowerment is always effective.
B. Western employees expect to participate in decision making.
C. Groups are wasteful and inefficient.
D. Employee motivation results from the leader removing obstacles.

Question 11
According to group dynamics research that is the basis for the Normative Decision Model:
A. groups make better decisions.
B. well trained groups make faster decisions than individuals.
C. leaders get better results when they rely on groups.
D. participation in decision-making leads to commitment.

Question 12
In the _________ decision style, the leader makes the decision alone, with or without information from the group.
A. autocratic
B. individual
C. consultative
D. group

Question 13
When there is no quality requirement and employee commitment is not needed, the most appropriate leader decision style is:
A. autocratic.
B. individual.
C. consultative.
D. group.

Question 14
According the Path-Goal Theory, the leader must motivate followers by:
A. encouraging them to do their best.
B. strengthening the links among effort, performance, and outcomes.
C. addressing each follower’s needs.
D. being both a supportive and a task-oriented leader who focuses on followers.

Question 15
Suzanna would like to improve her leadership effectiveness using Path-Goal theories of leadership. She should:
A. identify her in-group and out-group and how followers get in each group.
B. make sure that she has enough power.
C. understand her followers’ need for autonomy and their perception of the task.
D. make sure she is comfortable with a variety of decision styles.

Question 16
Having a clear task that provides direct feedback to follower serves as a substitute for:
A. leader consideration behaviors.
B. organizational policies.
C. leader structuring behaviors.
D. leader’s lack of power.

Question 17
The substitute for leadership model has increasing applications to many organizations as they:
A. implement the use teams.
B. select leaders with certain traits.
C. teach leaders to be both considerate and provide structure.
D. move to other cultures.

Question 18
Employees who do not have a high quality LMX are likely to experience one of the following.
A. ssignment to challenging tasks
B. A lot of positive and negative communication from their leader
C. Limited interaction with the leader
D. High performance expectations

Question 19
When the employees’ commitment is essential, they generally agree with the goals of the organization, and the leader does not have enough information, the most appropriate decision style is:
A. autocratic.
B. consultative.
C. delegation.
D. individual.

Question 20
The key issue in keeping in-groups productive is:
A. the leader’s personality.
B. the followers’ personality.
C. how in-group members are selected.
D. the quality of the LMX.

Question 1
Abilities tend to be:
A. stable over an extended period of time.
B. related to culture.
C. based on values.
D. related to leadership.

Question 2
Individual difference characteristics affect a person’s behavior most when:
A. the situation provides clear guidelines.
B. the situation is loosely structured.
C. the person is strong willed.
D. the person is flexible.

Question 3
Which one of the following influences a person’s value system?
A. abilities
B. skills
C. leadership
D. culture

Question 4
Which one of the following have been found to be relatively universal values?
A. Individuality and individual dignity
B. Personal achievement and performance
C. Fairness and honesty
D. Desire for recognition and rewards

Question 5
Older generations in Western Europe and the U.S. tend to __________ than younger generation.
A. bemore suspicioius of authoriy
B. have a stronger sense of cultural superiority
C. be more independent
D. be more tied to their parents and family members

Question 6
A __________ view of ethics suggests that what is right or wrong depends on the situation.
A. universalist
B. contingency
C. relativist
D. cultural

Question 7
United States laws forbid business people to bribe others even in cultures where bribery is expected or necessary. This approach to ethics reflects a __________ view of ethics.
A. universalist
B. contingency
C. relativist
D. cultural

Question 8
Marta has just been appointed to a top level executive position in her company. Which of the following leadership skills is she most likely to need and use?
A. technical
B. interpersonal
C. conceptual
D. organizational

Question 9
Which of the Big Five personality dimensions is most strongly correlated to job performance?
A. concientiousness
B. emotional intelligence
C. openness to experience
D. agreeableness

Question 10
__________ is the Big Five personality dimension that is important in jobs such as management that require social interaction.
A. Emotional intelligence
B. Extraversion
C. Openness to experience
D. Agreeableness

Question 11
Locus of control is an indicator of:
A. how much control a person needs.
B. how much contril a person feels he/she has.
C. the control level of leaders.
D. control available in the situation.

Question 12
Which of the following best describe Type As?
A. Type As are strategic thinkers who are proactive.
B. Type As try to do more in less time.
C. Type As are willing to cut corners to achieve their goals.
D. Type As are good at persuading others.

Question 13
The leader’s power increases when employees:
A. are motivated.
B. comply with her decisions.
C. do not resist a decision.
D. are committed to her decisions.

Question 14
Research about the effect of power distribution suggests that:
A. centralized power allows organizations to perform well.
B. concentrated power can be detrimental to performance.
C. leaders often give up their power willingly.
D. power sharing works well in most cultures.

Question 15
Individuals with __________ power can influence others because they are liked and respected.
A. legitimate
B. referent
C. informational
D. reward

Question 16
__________ is one of the influence tactics that rely on all sources of personal power.
A. Pressure
B. Personal appeal
C. Consultation
D. Rational persuasion

Question 17
The concept of __________ suggests that teams gain power based on their ability to remove obstacles for others.
A. strategic contingencies
B. shared power
C. empowerment
D. coalition building

Question 18
A team leader focuses on assuring that his team members have the latest expertise not available elsewhere in the organization. He is using which organizational source of power to assure that his team has power?
A. centrality
B. organicity
C. substitutability
D. coalition building

Question 19
The key organizational factor in abuse of power is:
A. a decentralized structure.
B. the organizational culture.
C. the leadership succession plan.
D. the training and development plan.

Question 20
The underlying theme of empowerment is:
A. delegating all power to employees.
B. sharing power with those who need it to perform their job.
C. setting goals that everyone can achieve easily.
D. centralizing decision making in the team.

Question 1
Structure is best defined as:
A. the way human resources are organized.
B. the process by which inputs are transformed into outputs.
C. a common set of beliefs.
D. the internal factors that affect an organization.

Question 2
__________ includes all of the outside forces that potentially affect the organization.
A. Environment
B. Structure
C. Technology
D. Strategy

Question 3
Two general sets of factors moderate the power and discretion of executives. These include:
A. employees and other managers.
B. environmental factors and stakeholders.
C. external factors and organizational factors.
D. leadership factors and market issues.

Question 4
Culturally endorsed leadership theories (CLTs) were proposed by:
A. GLOBE researchers.
B. Hofstede.
C. Trompenaars.
D. Hall.

Question 5
A sense of crisis sets the stage for:
A. poor performance.
B. emergence of charismatic CEOs.
C. a decrease in CEO discretion.
D. stakeholders to exercise more power.

Question 6
Which one of the strategic leaders tries to protect the organization from the impact of outside forces, encourages a fluid culture, and emphasizes efficiency?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

Question 7
In successful companies, the well-established culture and procedures often:
A. reduce the impact of teams.
B. provide increased discretion to the leader.
C. increase the power of the leader.
D. act as substitutes for the CEO.

Question 8
The _______, the less the power and discretion of the CEO.
A. less uncertainty in the environment
B. stronger the TMT
C. younger the organization
D. more cohesive the organization

Question 9
Entrepreneurship, openness to change, transformational leadership, and futuricity are all part of which characteristic of upper echelon leaders?
A. external orientation
B. individualism
C. challenge seeking
D. risk-taking

Question 10
How open a leader is to change and how willing he/she is to take risks is most important and relevant:
A. in small organizations.
B. during the formulation of strategy.
C. in times of crisis when high-risk decisions often pay off.
D. in certain environments.

Question 11
Which one of the strategic leaders implements the latest high-technology innovations in his/her organization, builds a strong dominant culture, and hires managers who are similar to him/her?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

Question 12
According to the culturally endorsed leadership theories, which cultures most value leaders who are inspirational and provide a vision?
A. Middle Easterners and Southern Europeans
B. Latin Americans and Nordic Europeans
C. Eastern Asians and Africans
D. Southwestern Asians and Germans

Question 13
Tolerance for diversity, extent of centralization, degree of employee participation, and organicity are all part of which characteristic of upper echelon leaders?
A. internal orientation
B. collectivism
C. need for control
D. risk-aversion

Question 14
The common thread among many female executives is:
A. the fear of failure.
B. employee empowerment.
C. lack of international experience.
D. strong financial skills.

Question 15
One argument in support of the high executive packages is that:
A. higher pay leads to higher performance.
B. the high salaries are needed to prevent CEOs from abusing their power.
C. CEO jobs are demanding and unstable.
D. U.S. CEOs are among the best in the world.

Question 16
The public-good mission of nonprofits, along with voluntary participation of many contributors requires leaders to engage in a __________ style.
A. directive
B. collaborative
C. authoritative
D. task-oriented

Question 17
How does Lafley regard power?
A. Power is not necessary for performance.
B. Power must be shared with all employees.
C. Building a power base starts with expertise and must be backed up with force if necessary.
D. Power is determined by influence rather than control.

Question 18
How many strategic forces are in the domain of strategic leadership?
A. two
B. four
C. six
D. eight

Question 19
Zhen does not like change much and empowers his employees to make their own decisions. Which strategic leadership type is he?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

Question 20
Maleeni enjoys new situations and likes taking risks and believes that leaders should delegate decision making to the lowest possible level. Which strategic leadership type is she?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager