Multiple Choice Answers

1. Slavery is the most widespread in the __________ society.
horticultural
pastoral
agricultural
industrial

2. In the caste system, __________ is the washing ritual that restores purity following ritual pollution.
primogeniture
confession
ablution
compurgation

3. Marx believed that __________ people’s relationship to the means of production  was the primary factor that distinguished the different classes under industrial capitalism?
owning real estate
the transportation system of a society
people’s relationship to the means of production
access to natural resources

4. The three components Max Weber believed comprise one’s social class are:
property, power, and prestige.
education, race, and sex.
occupation, income, and age.
prestige, occupation, and wealth.

5. __________ is one’s ability to control others, even over their objections.
Diffusion
Power
Primogeniture
Compurgation

6. What is the term used to describe an organization in which positions are awarded based on one’s ability and skill?
Bureaucracy
Oligarchy
Meritocracy
Corporation

7. What is the ideology supporting the concept that a society’s ruler is God’s direct representative on earth to administer justice and punish evil doers?
Might makes right
The divine right of kings
The reality principle
The pursuit of happiness

8. What are the two most striking characteristics of the British class system?
Language and education
Race and income
Occupational prestige and wealth
Family background and official title

9. What was the primary purpose behind colonialism as it was practiced during the 18th and 19th centuries by the nations of Europe?
To educate and modernize the underdeveloped world
To bring Christianity to the primitive people of the world
To establish economic colonies and exploit the people and resources
To develop military and industrial allies

10. The __________ allows U.S. companies to import materials to Mexico without paying tax and to then export the finished products into the United States, again without tax.
Taft Hartley Law
North American Free Trade Agreement
Hatch Act
Swift Amendment

11. How has the introduction of new technologies affected global domination and stratification?
The underdeveloped nations of the world are making excellent progress.
There is greater parity between the most industrialized and least industrialized nations.
There has been no change in the status of nations.
New technologies benefit the most industrialized nations at a far greater degree than the least industrialized nations.

12. What term do sociologists use to refer to Social class  a large group of people who rank closely together in property, power, and prestige?
Social class
Social aggregate
Social cliche
Social group

13. Bruce owns about 3,000 acres of prime farmland, is one of the wealthiest men in the county, and enjoys a great deal of prestige in his community. In view of this, how would sociologists describe Bruce as it pertains to social class Bruce is status consistent because of his high ranking in the two dimensions. ?
Bruce is status inconsistent because wealth and prestige seldom go together.
Bruce is status consistent because of his high ranking in the two dimensions.
Without additional information it is impossible to determine Bruce’s social class.
If Bruce is “old money” he is status consistent, but he is status inconsistent if he is “new money.”

14. What was the underlying assumption of Karl Marx as it related to determining one’s position on the social class ladder?
Social class was solely based on one’s relationship to the means of production.
Social class was based on one’s position in the Communist party.
Social class was determined by one’s ties to the ruling class.
Social class was determined by one’s level of education.

15. Erik Wright used the term __________ to describe the condition when a person simultaneously occupies more than one class at the same time.
status inconsistency
contradictory class locations
class inconsistency
class ambiguity

16. Based on the model of Kahl and Gilbert, the __________ class is most shaped by education.
capitalist
upper middle
lower middle
working

17. Meredith is confined to a “medicinal straitjacket.” In view of this, what can be surmised about Meredith’s situation?
Meredith is a mentally disturbed upper class patient undergoing psychotherapy.
Meredith qualifies as being in poverty and is receiving tranquilizers for a diagnosed mental illness.
Meredith is a middle-class mental patient in seclusion receiving needed rest and relaxation.
Meredith has overdosed on tranquilizing drugs and is now undergoing detoxification.

18. During the Great Depression thousands of people changed social class unexpectedly and usually in a downward spiral  What type of mobility did this event illustrate?
Intergenerational mobility
Structural mobility
Intragenerational mobility
Exchange mobility

19. Which set of characteristics is most applicable in describing the poor?
Inner-city dweller, African American, high school diploma, single
Rural location, white, high school drop-out, mother head of household
Inner-city dweller, white, married, high school education
Rural location, African American, married, some college

20. Which explanation of poverty do sociologists generally support?
Sociologists equally accept the social structure and characteristics of the individual explanations.
Sociologists support the characteristics of the individual over the social structure explanation as the main cause of poverty.
Sociologists support the social structure explanation over the characteristics of the individual as the main cause of poverty.
Neither the social structural nor personal characteristics explanation find much support among sociologists as the cause of poverty.