Multiple Choice Answers

1. A formal statement that there is an absence of relationship between variables when tested by a researcher is called: (Points : 1)
Null hypothesis
Type I error
Type II error
Negative interval
2. Bivariate statistics refers to the statistical analysis of the relationship between two variables. (Points : 1)
True
False
3. Positive relationships between two variables indicate that, as the score of one increases, the score of the other increases. (Points : 1)
True
False
4. A result that is probably not attributable to chance is: (Points : 1)
Type I error
Type II error
Statistical significance
In the semi-quartile range
5. A score that is likely to fall into the middle 68% of scores of a normal distribution will fall inside these values: (Points : 1)
. +/- 3 standard deviations
+/- 2 standard deviations
+/- 1 standard deviation
semi-quartile range
6. It is important to assess the magnitude or strength of a relationship because this assists you with deciding whether or not a variable A causes variable B. (Points : 1)
True
False
7. In a negative relationship, as the score of one variable decreases, the score on the second variable decreases. (Points : 1)
True
False
8. A set of subjects, usually randomly sampled, selected to participate in a research study is called: (Points : 1)
Population
Sample
Mode Group
Partial Selection
9. A perfect negative relationship between two variables is expressed as r=0. (Points : 1)
True
False
10. When examining the relationship between a nominal variable and an interval or ratio variable, you would create a table using the nominal variables, calculate the mode and median of the interval or ratio variable, then make a decision regarding the relationship using the mode and median. (Points : 1)
True
False
11. A Z score of +/-1.96 is equivalent to these values on a normal distribution. (Points : 1)
Critical region
+/-1 standard deviation
+/-2 standard deviations
+/-3 standard deviations
12. An assumption used by statisticians which states that population parameters are normally distributed: (Points : 1)
Central Limit Theorem
Null Hypothesis
Statistical significance
Standard deviation
13. When examining the relationship between two interval or ration level variables, you can use a scatterplot to allow you to visualize the relationship between the two. (Points : 1)
True
False
14. Correlation coefficients, r, range from -1.00 to +1.00. (Points : 1)
True
False
15. An entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics is: (Points : 1)
Sample
Population
Median Group
Complete selection
16. Data which uses number values, has an equal distance between values, and has a possible absolute zero is: (Points : 1)
Interval
Nominal
Ordinal
Ratio
17. To determine the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for or explained by the variability of a second variable, you would calculate a correlation coefficient, then square it. (Points : 1)
True
False
18. A significant finding with the 2 sample t-test indicates a strong relationship exists between the 2 population means. (Points : 1)
True
False
19. Data which uses number values with an equal distance between values are: (Points : 1)
Nominal
Ordinal
Normal
Interval
20. Data which uses numbers to provide categories or labels as well as the ordering of the categories are: (Points : 1)
Nominal
Ordinal
Ratio
Interval
21. Not all variables retained in a regression model are required to be significant. (Points : 1)
True
False
22. Parametric tests can be used with any type of data. (Points : 1)
True
False
23. This term refers to how data spreads out or disperses within a distribution. (Points : 1)
Variability
Critical region
Range
Mode
24. Relevant data that are expressed in numerical form are called: (Points : 1)
Qualitative data
Quantitative data
Standard data
Multiplicative data
25. It is not necessary to look at the frequency distribution if the mean, median, and mode are known. (Points : 1)
True
False
26. Causation is synonymous with association. (Points : 1)
True
False
27. The area of the theoretical distribution where the researcher will reject the null hypothesis is called: (Points : 1)
+/- 1 standard deviation
Semi-quartile range
Critical region
Standard deviation
28. The arithmetic average of the data is called the: (Points : 1)
Mean
Median
Mode
Var
29. Regression uses the least squares method to fit a model. (Points : 1)
True
False
30. The difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution is called: (Points : 1)
Semi-quartile range
Range
Mean
Median
31. This is the measurement of dispersion equal to the square root of the mathematical variance. (Points : 1)
Mean
Median
Standard deviation
Range
32. This is used to compare means while controlling for the effect of a covariate. (Points : 1)
ANOVA
RANOVA
ANCOVA
Dependent t-test
33. The assumptions for ANCOVA differ substantially from those for ANOVA. (Points : 1)
True
False

34. When the researcher incorrectly rejects the null hypothesis, it is known as: (Points : 1)
Hypothesis error
Statistical significance
Type I error
Type II error
35. You are studying the effect of hypnosis on weight loss. You will measure each patient’s weight pre- and post-intervention. The most appropriate test is: (Points : 1)
One sample t-test
MANOVA
ANCOVA
Dependent groups t-test
36. What is the minimum level of measurement appropriate for the independent variable in a t-test? (Points : 1)
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
37. ANOVA assumes which of the following? (Points : 1)
Random sampling
Normal distribution
Dependent variable is at least interval
Three or more groups of independent variable
All of the above
38. Public Health nurses want to compare the mean weight of US 6th graders to a sample of 6th graders in one school. Which statistical test is most appropriate (Points : 1)
One-sample t-test
ANOVA
ANCOVA
Independent t-test
39. A group of neonatal nurses wanted to know if there was a difference in mean heart rate between premature babies who were swaddled and babies who were not swaddled. Babies were randomly assigned to swaddling or no swaddling. Which test is most appropriate? (Points : 1)
One sample t-test
ANCOVA
Independent t-test
Logistic regression
40. Psych nurses wanted to evaluate the effect of three different treatments for anxiety – positive imagery, therapeutic touch, and medication on anxiety score (interval data) while controlling for the effect of length of stay. Which test is most appropriate? (Points : 1)
ANOVA
ANCOVA
Independent t-test
Paired t-test
41. Critical care nurses wanted to evaluate the effect of heparin vs saline IV flush solution on IV patency (patent vs not patent). Which test is most appropriate? (Points : 1)
One sample t-test
Independent t-test
Chi-square test
ANOVA
42. A nurse researcher wanted to evaluate blood pressure in a set of patients/research subjects at 1, 3, and 6 months. What test would be most appropriate? (Points : 1)
Independent t-test
ANVOVA
RM-ANOVA
ANCOVA
43. In a study that examines the effect of a peer mentor on the heart rate of patients, what is the dependent variable? (Points : 1)
Peer mentoring
Emotional status
Heart rate
Patients
44. A variable with equal distances between score units which also has a true meaningful zero is: (Points : 1)
Ordinal
Cardinal
Ratio
Nominal
45. The standard deviation is: (Points : 1)
The difference between the 3rd and 1st quartile.
The squared deviations from the mean.
The difference between the highest and lowest scores.
The square root of the variance.
46. If a researcher accepts a null hypothesis when that hypothesis is actually true, she has committed: (Points : 1)
a type I error
a type II error
no error
a causation
47. Chi-square tests can be conducted for a 4X3 contingency table. (Points : 1)
True
False
48. This is used when a conservative approach is desired and an expected cell frequency is less than 5 in a 2X2 table. (Points : 1)
Fisher’s exact test
Cramer’s V
Yates’ correction
Regression
49. The distribution of chi-square values is NOT normally distributed. (Points : 1)
True
False
50. Generally, an ANOVA test is used when 3 or more variables are compared. (Points : 1)
True
False