Multiple Choice Answers

1. The president’s role in foreign policy increased largely because:
Congress proved so inept in foreign affairs that the American people demanded a change.
America became more of a world power.
of the need to coordinate national economic policy and foreign policy, a task to which the presidency was well-suited.
of the desire of U.S. business to expand into Latin America and Asia, which required executive action at the highest level.

2. From roughly 1900 to 1960, a strong showing in presidential primaries:
enabled a candidate to demonstrate popular support, but did not ensure nomination.
did not improve a candidate’s chances of gaining the nomination.
guaranteed a candidate’s nomination.
guaranteed a candidate’s place on the ticket, although sometimes as the vice presidential nominee rather than presidential nominee.

3. The primary election as a means of choosing the states’ delegates to the national conventions where the presidential nominee is formally selected:
was introduced during the Jacksonian era.
is used in Europe as well as in the United States.
has been adopted more widely in recent decades, such that the candidate who dominates the primaries can usually expect to have won enough delegates to be assured of nomination at the convention.
is being replaced by the open-caucus system of selecting delegates.

4. Candidate strategy in the early presidential nominating contests (such as New Hampshire’s primary) is designed chiefly to gain:
the support of the party’s congressional leaders.
the endorsements of newspaper editors.
the support of partisan rivals.

5. The selection of the vice presidential nominee at the national convention is based on:
the results of the primaries and caucuses: The candidate who places second in these contests is nominated as the running-mate of the candidate who finishes first.
the convention delegates’ judgment as to the candidate who would make the best vice president.
the results of public opinion polls taken just before the convention begins.
the presidential nominee’s choice of a running mate.

6. Candidates for presidential nomination are eligible to receive federal matching funds if they raise enough money on their own and if they agree:
to participate in televised debates along with the other candidates.
to enter the first contests in Iowa and New Hampshire.
not to run as an Independent candidate if they lose the nominating race.
to limit their total campaign spending to a specified amount.

7. Most presidential campaign money during the general election is spent on:
maintaining a campaign staff.
television advertising.
mass mailing of campaign literature.
staging of personal appearances.

8. The War Powers Act was enacted in order to:
guide the military in its use of force in field situations where it is impractical to seek direction from the president.
allow the president more leeway in committing U.S. troops to combat.
limit the president’s war-making power.
define the relationship between the United States and its allies.

9. A president’s policy initiatives are significantly more successful when the president:
has the strong support of the American people.
is a former member of Congress.
is on good terms with other world leaders.
is in office when the economy goes bad, which creates a demand for stronger leadership.

10. The only two states that are exceptions to the unit rule for awarding electoral votes are:
Michigan and Montana.
New Hampshire and Vermont.
Maine and Nebraska.
Georgia and Louisiana.

11. Whenever Congress has a perceived need for ongoing control of an economic activity, it has tended to create a:
regulatory agency.
cabinet department.
presidential commission.
government corporation.

12. As distinct from the patronage and executive leadership system, the merit system for managing the bureaucracy:
allows the president to appoint top officials of executive agencies, thus making the bureaucracy more responsive to election outcomes.
provides for a neutral administration in the sense that civil servants are not partisan appointees, thus ensuring evenhanded work.
provides for presidential leadership of the bureaucracy, thus giving it greater coordination and direction.
provides that all programs will be evaluated regularly to determine whether they merit continued funding.

13. When it was developed during the Jackson administration, the patronage system was designed to:
provide jobs to merit appointees.
increase congressional control of the bureaucracy.
increase judicial control of the bureaucracy.
make the administration of government more responsive to ordinary citizens.

14. The chief goal of the executive leadership system is:
the shifting of power from Congress to the president.
improved coordination through the presidency of the bureaucracy’s programs and agencies.
the establishment of partisanship as the basis for the administration of policy.
the shifting of power from Congress to the federal courts.

15. The federal bureaucracy today is:
extremely wasteful and unresponsive to the public it serves.
an ineffective institution in comparison with bureaucracies of democracies with unitary systems.
more responsive to the public at large than to the particular interests that depend on its various programs.
a mix of the patronage, merit, and executive leadership systems.

16. The special interests that benefit directly from a bureaucratic agency’s programs are called:
clientele groups.
pressure groups.
entitlement groups.
recipient groups.

17. It can be said of regulatory commissions that:
the commissioners pursue independent and impartial policies, regardless of political pressure from Democrats or Republicans in Congress.
unlike presidential appointees in other areas, regulatory heads choose which civil servants will work in their agencies, and thus have the full loyalty of career bureaucrats.
the broad discretion these commissions have over regulatory policy means that a change in their membership can have a significant impact.
unlike presidential appointees in other areas, the president can hire and fire the heads of regulatory commissions whenever he or she chooses.

18. Legally, the bureaucracy derives the general authority for its programs from:
acts of Congress.
regulatory rulings.
court rulings.
the will of the people.

19. The courts have tended to support administrators as long as their agencies:
follow what the president demands of them.
have adequate funding.
do not come into conflict with state governments.
apply a reasonable interpretation of a statute.

20. The Postal Service and AMTRAK are examples of:
cabinet departments.
government corporations.
independent agencies.
regulatory agencies.