Multiple Choice Answers

Question 1
What other criminal justice professional is most like the correctional officer?
A. Prosecutor
B. Judge
C. Police officer
D. Bail bondsman

Question 2
The term pluralistic ignorance describes:
A. ignoring the calls of officers in need.
B. the vocal minority shaping the perception of subcultural values.
C. competing interest groups operating within the prison.
D. conflicts between management and officers being reflected in inmate behavior.

Question 3
The interdependence that may develop between correctional officers and inmates that is characterized by favoritism is called:
A. pluralistic ignorance.
B. reciprocity.
C. “trickle down” supervision.
D. hostile loyalty.

Question 4
Inmates and correctional officers agree that all of these traits EXCEPT which one are characteristics of a good officer?
A. Consistency
B. Fairness
C. Flexibility
D. Loyalty

Question 5
In Kaufman’s description of the CO subculture, someone who was perceived as sympathetic to inmates was known as a:
A. white hat.
B. inmate lover.
C. bleeding heart.
D. social worker.

Question 6
A. Johnson’s types of C.O.’s include all of the following EXCEPT:
B. white hat.
C. violence-prone.
D. time-server.
E. red hat.

Question 7
Officers treating inmates the way they perceive they are being treated is called the __________ theory of ethical management.
A. consistent
B. guide
C. “trickle down”
D. proactive

Question 8
The Tucker telephone was associated with a prison in:
A. Texas.
B. Arkansas.
C. California.
D. Mississippi.

Question 9
Criticisms of super max prisons include:
A. no human contact.
B. little or no exercise.
C. inmates sent there for whom the prison was not designed.
D. All of the above

Question 10
The location of Abu Ghraib prison is:
A. Iraq.
B. Afghanistan.
C. Vietnam.
D. Texas.

Question 11
Which ethical system is most consistent with community corrections?
A. Ethics of Virtue
B. Egoism
C. Ethical Formalism
D. Ethics of Care

Question 12
Net-widening raises what ethical issue?
A. Unlawful imprisonment
B. Increasing correctional population
C. Invasion of privacy
D. No treatment

Question 13
All of the following are true statements about probation and parole officers EXCEPT:
A. they typically have at least a bachelor’s degree.
B. they are subject to fewer organizational controls.
C. they are considered to be less professional than correctional officers.
D. they have a great deal of discretion.

Question 14
The probation or parole officer’s power to recommend revocation is:
A. meaningless.
B. limited.
C. absolute.
D. unfettered.

Question 15
Which of the following characteristics is NOT commonly associated with probation and parole officer subculture?
A. Cynicism
B. Lethargy
C. Individualism
D. Feelings of victimization

Question 16
Which of the following is NOT one of Souryal’s types of probation and parole officers?
A. Punitive law enforcer
B. Bureaucratic paper pusher
C. Welfare/therapeutic practitioner
D. Passive time server

Question 17
All of the following statements are true about the job of parole officers compared to the job of probation officers EXCEPT:
A. parolees are perceived to be more of a threat to the community.
B. paroled offenders are usually older and have a longer criminal record.
C. the problems faced by parolees are the same as those faced by probationers.
D. in probation, supervision is balanced with a service/counseling emphasis.

Question 18
“Peacemaking” corrections is a model under:
A. retributive justice.
B. deterrence.
C. treatment.
D. restorative justice.

Question 19
Which of the following is NOT a form of restorative justice?
A. Healing circles
B. Reparation boards
C. Shaming circles
D. Victim-offender mediation

Question 20
The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming is supported by the observation that:
A. communities with strong social ties have less crime.
B. the Japanese crime rate is high.
C. offenders rarely accept responsibility for their crimes.
D. Megan’s law has overwhelming support in the United States.