The term “globalism” or “globalization” generally refers to:
A. increasing loyalty to your own country.
B. global competition characterized by networks that bind countries, institutions, and people.
C. competition in an increasingly borderless world.
D. both b and c.
Which of the following is correct about measuring globalization?
A. The United States is the most globalized country.
B. Globalization is measured using only economic factors.
C. Trade, travel, technology, and links with the rest of the world are four comprehensive measures of globalization.
D. The United States leads all countries in trade and travel.
The three major world currencies today are the:
A. euro, yen, and U.S. dollar.
B. euro, yen, and peso.
C. euro, U.S. dollar, and Deutchmark.
D. U.S. dollar, yen, and Deutchmark.
In which of the following three regional free-trade blocs does most of today’s world trade take place?
A. Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and North America
B. Western Europe, Asia, and the United States
C. Western Europe, Asia, and the Americas
D. Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Americas
An important aspect of the political environment is the phenomenon of __________, which is a driving force behind political instability around the world.
B. government oppression
Which of the following best describes nationalization?
A. The use of locals in management positions
B. Giving hiring precedence to locals over employees from the company’s headquarters
C. Government’s gradual and subtle actions against a firm
D. The forced sale of an MNC’s assets to local buyers
European nations are most likely to use which type of law?
Tariffs and quotas are examples of what types of policies?
A. Economic development
C. Free market
D. Political development
An international manager should choose technology that is:
A. capital intensive.
B. labor intensive.
D. developmentally suitable.
One of the ways in which the European Commission is trying to use the Internet to facilitate and improve competition is by:
A. requiring all public sector companies to have a Web site.
B. mandating acceptance of credit cards by all public sector companies.
C. advertising all tender invitations online.
D. all of the above.
Issues of social responsibility continue to center on all of the following EXCEPT:
A. the military-industrial complex.
B. the environment.
C. consumer concerns.
D. employees’ safety and welfare.
The four international codes of conduct that provide some consistent guidelines for multinational enterprises were developed by all of the following EXCEPT:
A. the International Chamber of Commerce.
B. the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
C. the European Union.
D. the International Labor Organization.
Which of the following is FALSE?
A. Americans treat everyone the same by making moral judgments based on general rules.
B. Managers in Japan and Europe tend to make ethical decisions based on shared values and social ties.
C. There is little difference in ethical practices in the U.S., Canada, and Northern Europe.
D. The Japanese have the highest ethical standards.
The biggest single problem for MNCs, in their attempt to define a corporate-wide ethical posture, is:
A. the conflicting nature of international laws.
B. the variation of standards of ethical behavior worldwide.
C. the absence of international legal agencies.
D. the differences among worldwide religions.
In Japan, corporate social responsibility has traditionally meant that the company:
A. follows what its competitors are doing.
B. follows the example of the host government.
C. adapts to prevailing international practices in a given region.
D. takes care of its employees.
One real or perceived lack of responsibility of MNCs focuses on the transfer-in of:
A. financing and currency.
B. home nation executives.
C. different standards of living.
D. inappropriate technology.
Most of the past criticism levied at MNCs has focused on their activities in:
A. developed nations.
B. the United States.
C. less developed countries.
D. pollution control.
All of the following are criticisms of MNCs EXCEPT:
A. MNCs raise capital locally, crowding out local investment.
B. MNCs have greater wealth than the host economy.
C. MNCs usually reserve key management positions for expatriates.
D. MNCs concentrate their R & D at home.
In recent years, the export of hazardous wastes from developed countries to less developed ones has:
A. decreased considerably.
B. remained about the same.
C. increased considerably.
D. been banned by the World Health Organization.
Industrial ecology requires:
A. commitment from the host government.
B. an industrial system be viewed in concert with its surrounding system.
C. home government commitment.
D. a change in the laws of the host country.
__________ is having a working knowledge of the cultural variables affecting management decisions.
A. Cultural accommodation
B. Cultural savvy
C. Cultural transfer
D. Cultural sensitivity
According to research by Black and Mendenhall, up to __________ of expatriate managers leave their assignments early because of poor performance or poor adjustment in the local environment.
Cultural variables (values, norms, and beliefs) determine basic attitudes toward:
A. work and time.
B. materialism and individualism.
D. all of the above.
Convergence occurs when:
A. management styles evolve into entirely different styles over time.
B. managers agree to disagree on how to manage.
C. management styles become more similar to one another.
D. employees and managers begin to behave alike.
According to the GLOBE project, the __________ dimension refers to how much people in a society are expected to be tough, confrontational, and competitive versus moderate and tender.
B. humane orientation
C. future orientation
D. performance orientation
Jane greatly values achievements and success. Fred, on the other hand, values time with family and friends. Based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, Jane is likely to come from a(n) __________ culture, while Fred is likely to come from a(n) __________ culture.
A. high power distance; low power distance
B. high risk loving; low risk loving
C. individualistic; collectivist
D. achievement oriented; performance oriented
The example of Sweden barring airlines in the U.S. from transmitting passenger information, such as wheelchair need and meal preferences, over the Internet illustrates:
A. higher Internet use in Sweden compared to the U.S.
B. lax enforcement of privacy in Sweden.
C. the effect of the Internet on a country’s culture.
D. the effect of culture on how the Internet is used.
The manner in which Europe views information privacy has its roots in:
A. culture and history.
B. acceptance of U.S. cultural practices.
C. the formation of the European Union.
D. the spread of technological innovations.
Much of Japanese culture, and the basis of working relationships, can be explained by the principle of:
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Arab culture?
A. High context communication
B. Open admission of error
C. Polychromic use of time
D. Importance of preserving honor
According to communication researchers Samovar, Porter, and Jain:
A. noise is always equally present in cross-cultural communication.
B. culture does not influence with whom we choose to speak.
C. cultural factors pervade the communication process.
D. communication behavior is not largely dependent upon culture.
__________ is the process in which people look for the explanation of another person’s behavior.
B. Cultural noise
When an Asian says “yes” to your questions, the person is indicating that he or she:
A. is in agreement with what you say.
B. has heard you.
C. will have to ask his/her boss.
D. None of the above
During speech, Americans will look straight at you, but the British keep your attention by looking away. This is an example of:
A. object language.
Which of the following is the most accurate statement concerning the role of context in cross-cultural communication?
A. In high-context cultures, the message is implicit; in low-context cultures, the message is explicit.
B. In high-context cultures, there is a low sensory involvement; in low-context cultures, there is a high sensory involvement.
C. In high-context cultures, the message is explicit; in low-context cultures, the message is implicit.
D. In high-context cultures, there is a high sensory involvement; in low-context cultures, there is a low sensory involvement.
Mr. John Smith carries a scarf as a gift from the U.S. for the wife of Mr. Ahmed, his business associate in Saudi Arabia. This action will be considered:
A. a bribe.
B. an obligation of Mr. Ahmed to reciprocate.
C. inappropriate and impolite.
D. friendly and generous.
The __________ preference for written communication, even for informal interactions, demonstrates the formality of their relationships.
Communication over the Internet:
A. is generally unaffected by language, culture, and local laws.
B. will remain dominated by the English-language sites in the foreseeable future.
C. must be adjusted to differences in language, culture, and local laws.
D. is both a and b.
Steps in the development of effective intercultural communication include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. careful encoding.
B. selective transmission.
C. meaningful attribution.
D. appropriate follow-up.
A. occurs in high-context cultures.
B. is the ability to respond to others in a non-judgmental way.
C. is the posture used to communicate with Asians.
D. is the understanding and modeling of local proxemics.
Ignorance of __________, more than any other single factor, accounts for the United States’ unimpressive foreign sales efforts.
A. native bargaining rituals
B. domestic industry structure
C. negotiation strategy
D. cultural communication processes
Projective cognitive similarity is:
A. assuming the people feel they understand you.
B. assuming that people from different cultures negotiate in different ways.
C. assuming that cognitive information is more important than emotional appeals in negotiating.
D. assuming that others perceive, think, and reason the same way you do.
To understand differences in negotiating styles of people from other cultures, managers first need to understand:
A. the other negotiator’s culture.
B. their own negotiating style.
C. the five stages of the negotiation process.
D. cognitive versus emotional influences on negotiation.
Participation in social events, tours, ceremonies, and light conversations are generally forms of:
A. relationship building.
B. concessions and agreement.
Japanese negotiators are likely to be evasive or even leave the room rather than:
A. be confrontational.
B. be emotional.
C. embarrass the other party.
D. give a direct negative answer.
One of the most common tough negotiating tactics used by Russians is:
A. calling Americans dishonest.
B. ridiculing information provided by American negotiators.
C. stalling for time and haggling.
D. faking emotion.
Which of the following is INCONSISTENT with the cultural profile of a successful American negotiator?
A. Keeps cards close to the chest
B. Has a good sense of timing and is consistent
C. Very quiet and thoughtful
D. Takes a firm stand at the beginning of the negotiation
A. use affective appeals based on emotions and subjective feelings.
B. are more interested in long-term relationships.
C. are more likely to make concessions.
D. All of the above
Husted’s study found that many culture-based differences in negotiation reflected differences between:
A. rich and poor countries.
B. aggressive and passive individuals.
C. high-context and low-context cultures.
D. male and female negotiators.
Skillful negotiators tend to make twice as many comments regarding __________ than less skillful negotiators.
A. short-term issues
B. non-financial issues
C. marketing issues
D. long-term issues
Negotiators report two major areas of conflict in negotiating with the Chinese: their apparent insincerity about reaching an agreement and:
A. the amount of detail desired about product characteristics.
B. their insistence on compromise whenever the going gets tough.
C. unwillingness to develop relationships beyond a superficial level.
D. their use of bureaucratic mechanisms to stall.
Which of the following approaches to conflict handles a situation indirectly and implicitly and also does not have a delineation of the situation from the person handling it?
The __________ approach to conflict tends to deal on the basis of factual information and logical analysis.
Which of the following is NOT a step in the decision-making process?
A. Define the problem.
B. Gather and analyze relevant data.
C. Consider alternative solutions.
D. Gather feedback from subordinates.
Research shows that American managers have the highest __________, a cultural variable that greatly influences decision making.
A. success with negotiation
B. amount of patience
C. tolerance for risk
D. All of the above
In China, which is a highly collectivist society, employees expect __________ because their value system presupposes the superior to be automatically the most wise.
A. participative leadership
B. autocratic leadership
C. democratic leadership
D. laissez-faire leadership
American managers tend to exhibit more of which of the following characteristics than their foreign counterparts?
A. External locus of control
B. Diffused locus of control
C. Internal locus of control
D. Body language
The “ringi-sho” is the:
A. primary negotiator for the Japanese team.
B. highest ranking member of a Japanese negotiating team.
C. final written document produced in the decision-making process.
D. original written proposal.
The culture of __________ and __________ underlies the Japanese “ringi” system of decision making.
A. collectivism; shared responsibility
B. obedience; loyalty
C. authoritarianism; devotion
D. individual responsibility; lifetime employment
The four stages of the ringi system are:
A. preparation, relationship building, exchange of task-related information, and persuasion.
B. proposal, circulation, approval, and record.
C. preparation, relationship building, proposal, and circulation.
D. relationship building, exchange of task-related information, persuasion, and circulation.