Multiple Choice Answers

Question: When Louis’s wars with much of western and central Europe finally ended with the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697, Louis
A Had increased French territory in the west and northwest by 10 percent
B Was soon at war again, this time with Spain over territories in the New World
C Returned much of what he had seized since 1678, with the exception of Strasbourg
D Had lost territory along his borders with the Dutch and Austrian Habsburgs
Question: The Catholic church granted indulgences
A To bishops and priests who wanted to marry
B To all those who made a yearly pilgrimage to the Holy Land
C In order to entice heretics back into the fold
D In order to alleviate Christians’ suffering in purgatory
Question: In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg forced Emperor Charles V to recognize the Lutheran church in the Holy Roman Empire
A But retained Bavaria and Swabia as exclusively Catholic domains under Charles V’s direct control
B And gave princes the sole right to determine the religion practiced within their territories
C And legalized other dissenting sects such as Anabaptists and Mennonites
D But reasserted the inviolability of property owned by the Catholic church
Question: Under pressure to resolve the Great Schism, Pope John XXIII convened a church council at Constance in 1414, which elected a new pope
A Alexander V
B Clement VII
C Martin V
D Gregory XII
Question: What compelled Charles I to call a session of Parliament after refusing to do so for eleven years?
A Formation of representative governing bodies in the North American colonies
B Conversion of his brother and heir, James, to Catholicism
C The monarchy’s desperate need to raise tax revenues to put down a rebellion in Ireland
D The Scots’ invasion of northern England over being forced to use the Book of Common Prayer
Question: The 1571 event that ended Turkish dominance of the Mediterranean Sea was
A Philip II’s conquest of the Ottoman-controlled Balkan states
B The revolt of the Moriscos at Tunis
C Philip II’s naval victory at Lepanto off the Greek coast
D Emperor Ferdinand II’s victory over the Turks at White Mountain in Hungary
Question: Luther’s position condemning the German peasants during the Peasants’ War of 1525, as well as his subsequent teachings, set a precedent in which
A Religious disputes would henceforth be settled by way of repression and warfare in Protestant lands
B The laity was given a greater role in church affairs; no longer would both policy and religious practice be under the exclusive control of an ecclesiastical hierarchy
C Such things as religious conviction, passion, faith, and zeal would be prized above extensive knowledge of church dogma
D The Lutheran church would depend on the state – that is, on established political authority – for its support and, in turn, would support the state
Question: Henry IV reduced the state debt and thus bolstered his regime by the
A Unprecedented taxation of church lands
B Imposition of a poll tax
C Royal monopoly on textiles
D Selling of state offices to qualified bidders
Question: In 1391, after a vast persecution of Jews in Spain, those who converted to Christianity to save their lives were called
A Cortes
B Seracens
C Conversos
D Catastos
Question: Which of the following did not play a role in England’s civil war between 1642 and 1646?
A Cavaliers
B Independents
C Roundheads
D Quakers
Question: Parliament offered the throne jointly to William (r. 1689–1702) and Mary (r. 1689–1694) in 1688 on the condition that they accept
A A bill of rights making Parliament a full partner in state governance
B Anglican Protestantism as the official religion of England
C Parliamentary control over taxation
D A Bill of Reform securing important political and civil liberties for all English citizens
Question: Which of the following was not an indication of intense spiritual anxiety among the laity in the early sixteenth century?
A Prayer books in the vernacular and in Latin sold quickly
B Reports of miracles increased
C People began the imitation of Christ through acts of love, kindness, and pacifism
D New shrines sprang up
Question: Henry IV was urged to put the needs of the state ahead of religious affiliations by pro-toleration Catholics and Protestants known as
A Intendants
B “The nobility of the robe”
C The Company of Pastors
D Politiques
Question: In 1563, the Church of England’s Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion
A Left Catholic ritual and doctrines virtually untouched except for a break with the papacy
B Combined elements of Catholic ritual with Protestant doctrines
C Guaranteed an end to discrimination against Catholics
D Removed the power to appoint bishops from the monarch to the synod of bishops
Question: Which of the following does not describe changes in Europe caused by the devastation of the Black Death?
A Many farmers turned to raising grapes (for wine) and barley (for beer)
B Forests were cut down to reconstruct buildings burned as a result of plague infestation
C Stock raising increased
D The average diet became more varied and healthful
Question: The famine, plague, warfare, and religious persecutions of the fourteenth century unleashed behaviors such as anti-Semitism and
A Millenarianism
B Xenophobia
C Flagellantism
D Satanism
Question: Martin Luther and his followers came to be called “Protestants”
A After Pope Leo X referred to the reformers as misguided protesters
B When German princes and town leaders protested Charles V’s declaration that Roman Catholicism was the empire’s only legitimate religion
C Following the peasant uprising of 1525, during which peasants protested church-sanctioned abuse
D After Henry VIII established the Anglican church in protest against the pope’s authority
Question: The Peace of Augsburg (1555) made Lutheranism a legal religion in the predominantly Catholic Holy Roman Empire, but it
A Barred Protestant princes from voting for the Holy Roman Emperor
B Stipulated that Lutherans pay their tithe to the Catholic church
C Did not extend recognition to Calvinism
D Required Lutherans to live in principalities headed by Protestant princes
Question: During the sixteenth century, the flood of precious metals from the Americas and the tremendous growth in population resulted in
A Inflation of food prices that reached 400 percent
B Increasing wealth for urban workers, whose wages skyrocketed
C Building programs to create new roads and canals to transport people and goods
D Spain’s wealth reaching its highest level ever by the end of the sixteenth century
Question: The Florentine political theorist Niccoló Machiavelli (1469–1527) wrote a treatise on the mercenary nature of statecraft called
A The Prince
B Rerum Novarum
C On the Manner of Negotiating with Sovereigns
D The Republic
Question: Maria Sibylla Merian (1646–1717) was fairly typical of the many seventeenth-century women artists celebrated for their
A Religious sculptures
B Sumptuous still lifes
C Political cartoons
D Portraits of children
Question: The Protestant Reformation replaced
A Late medieval church schools with a public school system for both girls and boys in many countries
B The entire Roman Catholic liturgy with a simplified version of church-guided religious practice, involving sermons, songs, and prayer
C Confession with public penance
D The earlier male monopoly on clerical positions with gender-neutral hiring and appointment practices
Question: The Ottomans defeated the last organized Christian resistance south of the Danube River, in 1389, at the battle of
A Mohács
B Nicopolis
C Maritsa River
D Kosovo
Question: In the Netherlands, the ten largely Catholic southern provinces finally allied with the seven largely Protestant provinces in the north
A When the Spanish king Philip II’s mercenary army sacked Antwerp in 1576, slaughtering thousands of people
B Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, in which both Catholics and Protestants renounced all further territorial ambitions and agreed to maintain and respect current borders
C When they were under the threat of invasion by the German princes following an attack on Utrecht by Duke Maurice of Saxony in 1566
D To fight off the Dutch pirates, known as the Sea Beggars, who had long been attacking both Protestant and Catholic shipping lines along the Dutch coast
Question: Seventeenth-century absolutism and constitutionalism were political responses to
A Louis XIV’s attempts to conquer western Europe
B The fear of disorder and breakdown that was the legacy of the Wars of Religion
C The rise of the middle classes, who threatened to seize power from monarchs and aristocrats
D The Catholic church’s renewed efforts to assert its control over northern Germany
Question: The English peasants revolted in 1381 because of
A The king’s imposition of military conscription
B The teachings of John Wycliffe, who held that the people, not the king, owned the land
C The imposition of a universal tax to raise revenue for the war against France
D Widespread famine and rumors that barons were hoarding grain
Question: In 1378, the cardinals met in Rome and elected an Italian, Urban VI, pope, but
A The French cardinals accused the Italian cardinals of bribery, nepotism, and simony, then chose a French pope, John XXII, who was installed in Avignon
B Several of the cardinals were Urban’s bitter rivals and chose a rival Italian, Gregory XI, who had the backing of the Roman mob
C When Urban tried to end the tax on benefices, the cardinals deposed him and elected the more predictable Alexander V
D Urban immediately curbed the cardinals’ powers, whereupon the French cardinals elected a rival pope, Clement VII, and returned to Avignon
Question: One of the great debates in Europe and the New World during much of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries concerned
A Whether science would oust God
B The complete removal of religion from government
C The ideal nature of freedom
D The abolition of slavery
Question: The titular head of the Dutch Republic’s decentralized constitutional state was the
A Stadholder
B Lord Governor
C First regent
D Regierungsrat
Question: During the late medieval period, there was both a flowering of vernacular literature and a
A Rejection of previously popular luxury goods in favor of an austere and simple lifestyle
B Revival of classical learning that led to a new intellectual movement called humanism
C Decline in the study of the Latin language and literature
D Return to the religious traditions of the established church with a renewed interest in monasticism
Question: In 1494, Christopher Columbus became one of the first European explorers to propose
A A sea route from Spain to India as a way of avoiding conflict with the Ottomans who dominated the land routes to Asia
B The establishment of a regular slave trade based in Hispaniola
C A permanent European presence in the Americas
D An expedition to circumnavigate the globe
Question: Benedict Spinoza’s philosophy alarmed many because he proposed that
A There was no God
B Kings were no better than ordinary people
C Democracy was the form of government truest to nature
D God was not influenced by any human action or prayer
Question: Polish constitutionalism undermined, rather than strengthened, the state because
A Nobles who sat in the parliament were easily corrupted by Russian bribes
B The presence of religious and ethnic factions prevented an effective majority from forming
C Elections proved so expensive that candidates were often bankrupted
D A single negative vote in the legislature acted as a veto
Question: The Renaissance saw the transformation of diplomacy into a mature geopolitical science exemplified by such achievements as the Peace of Lodi (1454), which
A Established a truce between the kingdoms of Naples and Aragon and their alliance against the Ottoman Turks
B Put an end to the disruption caused by Milanese expansionism by establishing a balance of power among the major Italian city-states
C Established permanent boundaries between the papal states and the northern Italian city-states
D Led to a truce between Venice and the Ottoman Empire and the division of the Adriatic Sea into separate zones for Venetian and Ottoman commercial traffic
Question: Thomas More served as lord chancellor under Henry VIII, who
A Sent him, in 1520, to the Ottoman emperor to negotiate a trade agreement
B Dismissed him following his criticism of the king’s denunciation of the pope
C Beheaded him in 1535 for refusing to recognize the king as head of the church
D Promised him a position as regent should the king die before his son Edward reached maturity
Question: The eastern Mediterranean lost much of its appeal for Venetian and Genoese merchants in the second half of the fifteenth century as a result of
A Portuguese explorers’ discovery of the far more lucrative market offered by the Atlantic trade with Brazil
B Rising attacks by Ottoman soldiers bent on placing the Mediterranean under Ottoman control, as well as the increased presence of Ottoman pirates in search of booty
C Attacks by Mongol invaders seeking to expand west from their strongholds along the Black Sea
D Skyrocketing insurance rates, making trade in the western Mediterranean comparatively more profitable
Question: In 1527, Henry VIII took the first steps that would ultimately result in severing the English church’s ties with Rome because he
A Had been persuaded to convert to Protestantism after a personal meeting with Martin Luther
B Had experienced a vision that told him he had to set up his own church independent of Rome or face military defeat and humiliation
C Believed that this would strengthen his position in his struggle with Parliament for power
D Wanted to divorce his aging wife and marry again so that he could produce a male heir to the throne
Question: Which of the following initially precipitated the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453)?
A Edward III decided to march from Aquitaine into Languedoc, which enraged Philip VI
B The duke of Burgundy attempted to seize English lands in Normandy
C Edward III invaded France at Calais and laid claim to the French crown
D Philip VI confiscated Guyenne, a fief of the English king Edward III
Question: Eager to extend French power abroad, Louis XIV worked on developing a large, professionally run army. Which of the following was not a characteristic of Louis XIV’s army?
A Distribution of uniforms and limited veterans’ benefits, such as hospital care
B A militia draft, instituting troop supplementation in times of war
C A senior officer corps trained in military academies and receiving promotions based on merit
D Barracks in major towns provisioned through central supply and distribution centers
Question: In The Praise of Folly (1509), Erasmus
A Lampooned many of the “unchristian” values dear to his Christian contemporaries, such as pomposity, greed, and lust for power
B Attacked the papacy for its massive construction projects, such as the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome
C Spoke out against the foreign missionary work of groups like the Jesuits, arguing that Europe needed such work at home
D Used quotations from ancient classical works to criticize contemporary views on political and religious issues
Question: Middle-class writers depended on noble patrons for support; Christine de Pisan could not have produced much of her work without the patronage of
A Queen Isabelle of Bavaria
B King Charles V
C King Robert of Naples
D Catherine de Medici
Question: In Brandenburg-Prussia under Frederick William of Hohenzollern (r. 1640–1688), war commissars were responsible not only for military affairs, but also for
A Supervision of the postal system
B Elementary education
C Road, canal, and bridge construction
D Tax collection
Question: In their quest to revive the cultural glory of the ancient world, Renaissance humanists focused much attention on
A Classical history and literature
B Ancient Roman law and jurisprudence
C Mathematics and astronomy
D Classical architecture
Question: In 1529, Parliament passed legislation that made Henry VIII head of the Anglican church. This legislation was called the
A Act of Supremacy
B Recognition and Invalidation Act
C Henrician Recognition Act
D Anglican Church Act
Question: Between 1649 and his death in 1658, Oliver Cromwell had
A Become popular, idolized for saving England from despotism and preserving English representative institutions
B Transformed England into a Puritan state much like the Dutch Republic
C Become highly unpopular for his dictatorial behavior, such as abolishing Parliament, raising taxes and customs duties, banning newspapers, and persecuting dissent
D Kept England out of foreign wars for nearly a decade
Question: The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in 1598, ended the French Wars of Religion by
A Legalizing Protestantism and granting Protestants the same rights and freedoms as Catholics throughout the realm
B Granting Protestants a large measure of toleration, such as freedom to worship in specified towns and the right to retain their own troops, courts, and fortresses
C Establishing the Bourbons as heirs to the Valois throne, thus nullifying any Guise family counterclaims
D Declaring Catholicism the official religion of France, thereby undermining popular support for the Guises and their Spanish allies
Question: Both the Tories and the Whigs invited the Dutch ruler William of Orange, husband to James II’s daughter Mary, to invade England in 1688 when
A Cromwell dissolved Parliament and adopted the title Lord Protector
B Cromwell declared war on the Dutch over the objections of Parliament
C James II promised Louis XIV to convert to Catholicism in exchange for French aid against parliamentary forces
D James II produced a male heir whom Parliament feared would be reared as a Catholic
Question: Court life under Louis XIV was filled with entertainments and enjoyment of the arts. But it was also
A An opportunity for nobles to meet together and plot the overthrow of the king
B An opportunity for individual nobles to gain favor with the king, often through intrigue and gossip, at the expense of other nobles
C An opportunity for nobles to try to weaken Louis’s power by distracting him with entertainments, fine food, and excess drinking
D An opportunity for nobles to band together and demand concessions from Louis that would benefit the aristocracy
Question: As a counter to the parlements, provincial estates, aristocratic governors, and hereditary officials, Louis XIV employed
A Regents
B Mobile royal courts
C Intendants
D Royal militias
Question: At the center of his theology, Calvin placed “predestination,” a doctrine that argued that
A Every man, woman, and child who truly believed in Christ and his teachings was destined to enter heaven
B God had preselected every human being for either damnation or salvation, and these “elect” were known only to God
C God had predestined Calvin and his followers to practice true Christianity
D The lives of all people were predestined, except for their choice between good and evil