Multiple Choice Answers

Question: The famine, plague, warfare, and religious persecutions of the fourteenth century unleashed behaviors such as anti-Semitism and
A Millenarianism
B Xenophobia
C Flagellantism
D Satanism
Question: At Rheims, Joan of Arc anointed the dauphin,
A Philip VI of France
B Charles VII of France
C Charles II of Burgundy
D Louis X of France
Question: Under pressure to resolve the Great Schism, Pope John XXIII convened a church council at Constance in 1414, which elected a new pope,
A Alexander V
B Clement VII
C Martin V
D Gregory XII
Question: In 1555, the first Mexican Ecclesiastical Provincial Council declared that
A Holy orders were not to be bestowed on Indians or people of mixed-race heritage
B Indians should not be baptized until they had been taught to speak Spanish
C Native or mixed-race people were not allowed to take communion
D Intermarriage between Europeans and Indians was banned
Question: Revolutionary breakthroughs in seventeenth-century medicine included
A Galen’s discovery that the umbilical cord carries nourishment to the fetus
B Vesalius’s book on pharmacology, Ars Medicamentaria
C Harvey’s discovery that the heart worked as a pump
D Paracelsus’s On the Construction of the Human Body
Question: In his The Defender of the Peace (1324), Marsilius of Padua stated that the
A True church consisted of the people, who should elect the pope
B King of France had the right to select all churchmen within his realm
C Mass was less important than a believer’s conscience
D Church must be defended from secular rulers by a strong papacy
Question: Why did King Henry IV declare “Paris is worth a Mass”?
A He was a Huguenot but agreed to a Catholic wedding to please the Catholic queen
B When he became king, he converted to Catholicism to ensure control over France
C Despite his personal skepticism, he ordered masses and prayers of protection for Paris
D As a southern French Protestant, he detested Paris and meant that it was worthless
Question: One effect of the Hundred Years’ War was the collapse of some of the largest banks in Europe, a result of
A Widespread depopulation, which left the banks with massive unpaid debts
B King Edward III’s default on England’s war debts
C The Habsburg emperor’s seizure of the banking houses of Florence and Milan
D Pope Urban VI’s refusal to pay back loans he claimed had been gifts to the church
Question: The fifteenth-century Venetian economy was primarily dependent on
A Overseas trade
B Rich silver mines in the north
C Hiring out mercenaries for war
D Grain production on the rich plains of Friuli
Question: Renaissance art differed from its predecessors because it
A Used oil on canvas as its primary medium
B Focused almost exclusively on decorative subjects such as flowers or animals, whereas earlier art had been primarily religious portraiture
C Conveyed reality, not symbolic images, and presented it as the eye perceives it
D Rarely appeared in churches and was created almost entirely for hanging in private homes
Question: Henry IV was urged to put the needs of the state ahead of religious affiliations by pro-toleration Catholics and Protestants known as
A Intendants
B “The nobility of the robe”
C The Company of Pastors
D Politiques
Question: Which of the following does not describe changes in Europe caused by the devastation of the Black Death?
A Many farmers turned to raising grapes (for wine) and barley (for beer)
B Forests were cut down to reconstruct buildings burned as a result of plague infestation
C Stock raising increased
D The average diet became more varied and healthful
Question: The Renaissance saw the transformation of diplomacy into a mature geopolitical science exemplified by such achievements as the Peace of Lodi (1454), which
A Established a truce between the kingdoms of Naples and Aragon and their alliance against the Ottoman Turks
B Put an end to the disruption caused by Milanese expansionism by establishing a balance of power among the major Italian city-states
C Established permanent boundaries between the papal states and the northern Italian city-states
D Led to a truce between Venice and the Ottoman Empire and the division of the Adriatic Sea into separate zones for Venetian and Ottoman commercial traffic
Question: French scholar René Descartes (1596–1650) argued that
A The only thing that is certain is that nothing is certain
B Scientific learning might well undermine religious faith
C Studying alchemy and astronomy were part of natural magic
D A scientific approach to knowledge, based on logic and mathematics, could lead to a secure understanding of nature, human behavior, and politics
Question: The Florentine political theorist Niccoló Machiavelli (1469–1527) wrote a treatise on the mercenary nature of statecraft called
A The Prince
B Rerum Novarum
C On the Manner of Negotiating with Sovereigns
D The Republic
Question: The conditions prevalent in the fourteenth century that unleashed and exacerbated the catastrophe known as the Black Death did not include which of the following?
A Thriving international trade
B Cold spells that lead to crop failures
C The building of medieval city walls
D Overpopulation
Question: The Dutch state that emerged from the war against the Spanish king Philip II was not a democracy but, rather,
A An oligarchy of wealthy merchant families whose administrative capital was Antwerp
B A republic ruled by powerful merchant and professional families known as “regents”
C A confederation of fiercely independent principalities divided along religious lines
D A constitutional monarchy dominated by the House of Orange
Question: Middle-class writers depended on noble patrons for support; Christine de Pisan could not have produced much of her work without the patronage of
A Queen Isabelle of Bavaria
B King Charles V
C King Robert of Naples
D Catherine de Medici
Question: The massacre of thousands of French Protestants on St. Bartholomew’s Day, August 24, 1572, occurred when
A A Protestant mob smashed Catholic church windows and statues, which they asserted were objects of idol worship
B King Charles IX ordered leading Huguenots killed to prevent them from avenging a Catholic’s attack on a Huguenot nobleman
C William of Orange was stabbed to death by a fanatical monk
D The Huguenot Duke de Guise invited two Catholic noblemen to a meeting and murdered them
Question: In 1517, Martin Luther was moved to compose his Ninety-Five Theses because
A He feared that failure to stem the rising tide of heresy and dissension in Europe might eventually lead to the collapse of the church
B The archbishop of Mainz sold indulgences to help pay for St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and his own election campaign
C He was unable to find solace in the rituals and sacraments of the church
D The new archbishop of Mainz, Albrecht of Brandenburg, accused Luther of heresy to Pope Leo X
Question: Thomas More’s Utopia (1516) describes an imaginary land but is intended as
A A critique of his own society
B An argument against European expansion into the Americas
C A direct attack upon the pope for being a temporal ruler
D A description of religious turmoil in France
Question: During the sixteenth century, the flood of precious metals from the Americas and the tremendous growth in population resulted in
A Inflation of food prices that reached 400 percent
B Increasing wealth for urban workers, whose wages skyrocketed
C Building programs to create new roads and canals to transport people and goods
D Spain’s wealth reaching its highest level ever by the end of the sixteenth century
Question: The Dutch scholar Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) defined natural rights as
A Life, body, freedom, and honor
B Life, labor, property, and respect
C Life, body, mind, and soul
D Life, health, law, and justice
Question: The Peace of Augsburg (1555) made Lutheranism a legal religion in the predominantly Catholic Holy Roman Empire, but it
A Barred Protestant princes from voting for the Holy Roman Emperor
B Stipulated that Lutherans pay their tithe to the Catholic church
C Did not extend recognition to Calvinism
D Required Lutherans to live in principalities headed by Protestant princes
Question: The Catholic church granted indulgences
A To bishops and priests who wanted to marry
B To all those who made a yearly pilgrimage to the Holy Land
C In order to entice heretics back into the fold
D In order to alleviate Christians’ suffering in purgatory
Question: In the Netherlands, the ten largely Catholic southern provinces finally allied with the seven largely Protestant provinces in the north
A When the Spanish king Philip II’s mercenary army sacked Antwerp in 1576, slaughtering thousands of people
B Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, in which both Catholics and Protestants renounced all further territorial ambitions and agreed to maintain and respect current borders
C When they were under the threat of invasion by the German princes following an attack on Utrecht by Duke Maurice of Saxony in 1566
D To fight off the Dutch pirates, known as the Sea Beggars, who had long been attacking both Protestant and Catholic shipping lines along the Dutch coast
Question: Emperor Charles V and Francis I of France both took steps that shocked the Christian world; which of the following accurately describes their actions?
A Charles V invited all European Jews to come to the empire so that he could profit from their wealth, while Francis I instituted toleration for all Protestants who joined the army
B Charles V seized Rome and allowed his troops to sack the city in 1527 to punish the pope for siding with France, while Francis I made an alliance with the Turkish sultan against the emperor
C Charles V agreed to allow all Protestant princes independence, but only after they helped him defeat France, while Francis I made an alliance with a ruler he considered a heretic, Henry VIII of England
D Charles V made an alliance with the Ottoman sultan in order to end fighting in the East so he could concentrate on France, while Francis I, believing that God was punishing him, ordered the execution of all Jews and Protestants who refused to convert
Question: Martin Luther and his followers came to be called “Protestants”
A After Pope Leo X referred to the reformers as misguided protesters
B When German princes and town leaders protested Charles V’s declaration that Roman Catholicism was the empire’s only legitimate religion
C Following the peasant uprising of 1525, during which peasants protested church-sanctioned abuse
D After Henry VIII established the Anglican church in protest against the pope’s authority
Question: The success of Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475–1541), sent by the Spanish crown to the Americas in search of gold, resulted in
A A Spanish empire that encompassed the Aztec and Incan empires
B Advances in the weaponry of the Spanish invaders
C Greater passion of the Spanish soldiers who, along with the missionaries in their retinue, believed they were fighting to save souls for Christendom
D Greater sophistication within the Aztec and Incan imperial administrations and military commands
Question: Which of the following is not true of the baroque style?
A Eighteenth-century art critics coined the name as a criticism of its extravagant nature
B Protestant reformers embraced it because it emphasized the personal nature of religion
C The first great baroque painter was the Flemish Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640)
D It was closely associated with the Catholic Counter-Reformation
Question: In 1378, Oxford professor John Wycliffe
A Stated that the true church was a community of believers, not an ecclesiastical hierarchy
B Analyzed the reasons for the Great Schism and questioned the validity of the papacy
C Decried the materialism of church leaders and called for monks to replace them
D Criticized the papacy for not settling the Hundred Years’ War
Question: The Protestant Reformation replaced
A Late medieval church schools with a public school system for both girls and boys in many countries
B The entire Roman Catholic liturgy with a simplified version of church-guided religious practice, involving sermons, songs, and prayer
C Confession with public penance
D The earlier male monopoly on clerical positions with gender-neutral hiring and appointment practices
Question: Which of the following initially precipitated the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453)?
A Edward III decided to march from Aquitaine into Languedoc, which enraged Philip VI
B The duke of Burgundy attempted to seize English lands in Normandy
C Edward III invaded France at Calais and laid claim to the French crown
D Philip VI confiscated Guyenne, a fief of the English king Edward III
Question: The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in 1598, ended the French Wars of Religion by
A Legalizing Protestantism and granting Protestants the same rights and freedoms as Catholics throughout the realm
B Granting Protestants a large measure of toleration, such as freedom to worship in specified towns and the right to retain their own troops, courts, and fortresses
C Establishing the Bourbons as heirs to the Valois throne, thus nullifying any Guise family counterclaims
D Declaring Catholicism the official religion of France, thereby undermining popular support for the Guises and their Spanish allies
Question: The eastern Mediterranean lost much of its appeal for Venetian and Genoese merchants in the second half of the fifteenth century as a result of
A Portuguese explorers’ discovery of the far more lucrative market offered by the Atlantic trade with Brazil
B Rising attacks by Ottoman soldiers bent on placing the Mediterranean under Ottoman control, as well as the increased presence of Ottoman pirates in search of booty
C Attacks by Mongol invaders seeking to expand west from their strongholds along the Black Sea
D Skyrocketing insurance rates, making trade in the western Mediterranean comparatively more profitable
Question: In 1527, Henry VIII took the first steps that would ultimately result in severing the English church’s ties with Rome because he
A Had been persuaded to convert to Protestantism after a personal meeting with Martin Luther
B Had experienced a vision that told him he had to set up his own church independent of Rome or face military defeat and humiliation
C Believed that this would strengthen his position in his struggle with Parliament for power
D Wanted to divorce his aging wife and marry again so that he could produce a male heir to the throne
Question: In their quest to revive the cultural glory of the ancient world, Renaissance humanists focused much attention on
A Classical history and literature
B Ancient Roman law and jurisprudence
C Mathematics and astronomy
D Classical architecture
Question: Luther’s position condemning the German peasants during the Peasants’ War of 1525, as well as his subsequent teachings, set a precedent in which
A Religious disputes would henceforth be settled by way of repression and warfare in Protestant lands
B The laity was given a greater role in church affairs; no longer would both policy and religious practice be under the exclusive control of an ecclesiastical hierarchy
C Such things as religious conviction, passion, faith, and zeal would be prized above extensive knowledge of church dogma
D The Lutheran church would depend on the state – that is, on established political authority – for its support and, in turn, would support the state
Question: The Germans’ renown as vanguards of the art of printing and high-quality bookmaking dates back to the Renaissance and is based on all of the following developments except
A The invention of mechanical printing by Johannes Gutenberg in the 1440s
B German printers’ establishment of the first large-scale press in Rome in 1467
C The invention of a paper made up of inexpensive cloth rather than the costly animal skins traditionally used to make parchment
D The founding of the first international book fair, in the city of Frankfurt-am-Main, in the 1490s
Question: Although Luther attacked the church, called for radical reforms, and even praised Jan Hus at the Imperial Diet of Worms, he did not suffer Hus’s fate because
A Luther was German and had protection as a subject of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
B Luther did not insist on receiving the Eucharist as both the bread and the wine
C Luther enjoyed the protection of a powerful prince, the Elector of Saxony
D Luther was too widely known and far too popular to be openly tried or executed
Question: Which of the following astronomers delivered mathematical backing for heliocentrism and was the first to assert as a law that planetary orbits are ellipses?
A Galileo Galilei
B Johannes Kepler
C Tycho Brahe
D Nicolaus Copernicus
Question: In 1391, after a vast persecution of Jews in Spain, those who converted to Christianity to save their lives were called
A Cortes
B Seracens
C Conversos
D Catastos
Question: Henry IV reduced the state debt and thus bolstered his regime by the
A Unprecedented taxation of church lands
B Imposition of a poll tax
C Royal monopoly on textiles
D Selling of state offices to qualified bidders
Question: Thomas More served as lord chancellor under Henry VIII, who
A Sent him, in 1520, to the Ottoman emperor to negotiate a trade agreement
B Dismissed him following his criticism of the king’s denunciation of the pope
C Beheaded him in 1535 for refusing to recognize the king as head of the church
D Promised him a position as regent should the king die before his son Edward reached maturity
Question: The Anglican Protestant cause finally took firm hold in England during the reign of which of the following English monarchs?
A Henry VIII
B Mary Tudor
C Edward VI
D Elizabeth I
Question: The 1571 event that ended Turkish dominance of the Mediterranean Sea was
A Philip II’s conquest of the Ottoman-controlled Balkan states
B The revolt of the Moriscos at Tunis
C Philip II’s naval victory at Lepanto off the Greek coast
D Emperor Ferdinand II’s victory over the Turks at White Mountain in Hungary
Question: On October 18, 1534, Parisian Catholics awoke to an act of Protestant provocation that unleashed persecution against all Protestants and religious dissidents, called the
A Affair of the Placards
B Luther Affair
C Institutes Crisis
D Huguenot Conspiracy
Question: During the late medieval period, there was both a flowering of vernacular literature and a
A Rejection of previously popular luxury goods in favor of an austere and simple lifestyle
B Revival of classical learning that led to a new intellectual movement called humanism
C Decline in the study of the Latin language and literature
D Return to the religious traditions of the established church with a renewed interest in monasticism
Question: In 1529, Parliament passed legislation that made Henry VIII head of the Anglican church. This legislation was called the
A Act of Supremacy
B Recognition and Invalidation Act
C Henrician Recognition Act
D Anglican Church Act
Question: Toward the end of the Hundred Years’ War, which of the following shifted support from the English king, Henry V, to the French dauphin?
A Bavaria
B Aragon
C Burgundy
D Papal States