Multiple Choice Answers

1. Capital components
Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. The component cost of preferred stock is expressed as rp(1 – T). This follows because preferred stock dividends are treated as fixed charges, and as such they can be deducted by the issuer for tax purposes.
b. A cost should be assigned to retained earnings due to the opportunity cost principle, which refers to the fact that the firm’s stockholders would themselves expect to earn a return on earnings that were paid out rather than retained and reinvested.
c. No cost should be assigned to retained earnings because the firm does not have to pay anything to raise them. They are generated as cash flows by operating assets that were raised in the past, hence they are “free.”
d. Suppose a firm has been losing money and thus is not paying taxes, and this situation is expected to persist into the foreseeable future. In this case, the firm’s before-tax and after-tax costs of debt for purposes of calculating the WACC will both be equal to the interest rate on the firm’s currently outstanding debt, provided that debt was issued during the past 5 years.
e. If a firm has enough retained earnings to fund its capital budget for the coming year, then there is no need to estimate either a cost of equity or a WACC.

2. Incremental cash flows
Which one of the following would NOT result in incremental cash flows and thus should NOT be included in the capital budgeting analysis for a new product?
a. A firm has a parcel of land that can be used for a new plant site or be sold, rented, or used for agricultural purposes.
b. A new product will generate new sales, but some of those new sales will be from customers who switch from one of the firm’s current products.
c. A firm must obtain new equipment for the project, and $1 million is required for shipping and installing the new machinery.
d. A firm has spent $2 million on research and development associated with a new product. These costs have been expensed for tax purposes, and they cannot be recovered regardless of whether the new project is accepted or rejected.
e. A firm can produce a new product, and the existence of that product will stimulate sales of some of the firm’s other products.

3. Risk and project selection
Langston Labs has an overall (composite) WACC of 10%, which reflects the cost of capital for its average asset. Its assets vary widely in risk, and Langston evaluates low-risk projects with a WACC of 8%, average-risk projects at 10%, and high-risk projects at 12%. The company is considering the following projects:
Project Risk Expected Return
A High 15%
B Average 12%
C High 11%
D Low 9%
E Low 6%

Which set of projects would maximize shareholder wealth?
a. A and B.
b. A, B, and C.
c. A, B, and D.
d. A, B, C, and D.
e. A, B, C, D, and E.

4. Real options
Which one of the following will NOT increase the value of a real option?
a. Lengthening the time during which a real option must be exercised.
b. An increase in the volatility of the underlying source of risk.
c. An increase in the risk-free rate.
d. An increase in the cost of obtaining the real option.
e. A decrease in the probability that a competitor will enter the market of the project in question.

5. Real options
Gleason Research regularly takes real options into account when evaluating its proposed projects. Specifically, it considers the option to abandon a project whenever it turns out to be unsuccessful (the abandonment option), and it evaluates whether it is better to invest in a project today or to wait and collect more information (the investment timing option). Assume the proposed projects can be abandoned at any time without penalty. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. The abandonment option tends to reduce a project’s NPV.
b. The abandonment option tends to reduce a project’s risk.
c. If there are important first-mover advantages, this tends to increase the value of waiting a year to collect more information before proceeding with a proposed project.
d. A project can either have an abandonment option or an investment timing option, but never both.
e. Investment timing options always increase the value of a project.

6. Growth option: NPV
. Tutor.com is considering a plan to develop an online finance tutoring package that has the cost and revenue projections shown below. One of Tutor’s larger competitors, Online Professor (OP), is expected to do one of two things in Year 5: (1) develop its own competing program, which will put Tutor’s program out of business, or (2) offer to buy Tutor’s program if it decides that this would be less expensive than developing its own program. Tutor thinks there is a 35% probability that its program will be purchased for $6 million and a 65% probability that it won’t be bought, and thus the program will simply be closed down with no salvage value. What is the estimated net present value of the project (in thousands) at a WACC = 10%, giving consideration to the potential future purchase?
WACC = 10.0%                   0              1              2              3              4              5
Original project:       -$3,000    $500     $500     $500      $500      $500

Future                  Prob.
Buys      35%                                                                        $6,000
Doesn’t buy        65%                                                                        $0
a. $161.46
b. $179.40
c. $199.33
d. $219.26
e. $241.19