Multiple Choice Answers

Maleeni enjoys new situations and likes taking risks and believes that leaders should delegate decision making to the lowest possible level. Which strategic leadership type is she?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

Participation may be undesirable in all of the following situations EXCEPT when:
A. follower commitment is not necessary.
B. the tasks are complex and quality is important.
C. time is of the essence.
D. interaction between leader and followers is restricted.

Genencor International started its employee participation program:
A. when they built a new headquarters.
B. after the leadership team took a trip to Japan.
C. after they hired a new CEO.
D. as a routine part of doing business.

Li Wei is under pressure to make a quick decision on a project with which she has considerable expertise and experience. Her team is inexperienced and generally supportive, and she needs the members’ strong commitment to implement her decision. In this situation, Li Wei should:
A. make decisions by herself.
B. allow for employee participation.
C. seek more information.
D. delegate the decision to the group.

The more __________ a culture, the less likely it is that employees will participate in decision making.
A. coolectivist
B. ascriptive
C. power oriented
D. flexible

Which cultural values will least likely support employee participation and empowerment?
A. high power distance
B. collectivist
C. humane orientation
D. high time (future) orientation

The leadership traits identified by IBM to revive the company include which of the following?
A. being a visionary
B. developing people and enabling growth
C. being able to take charge
D. having both task and people skills

In spite of cultural and other differences, one of the keys to successful implementation of teams is:
A. follower’s involvement.
B. organizational policies.
C. slow implementation.
D. leader’s belief in participation.

Which of the following is one of the goals of delegation?
A. help th eleader with excessive workload
B. share power with employees
C. empower employees
D. increase the leader’s power

Leaders should generally not delegate which type of tasks or decisions?
A. Strategic decisions
B. Personnel decisions
C. Manufacturing tasks
D. Quality control

Which underlying factor may be a contributing factor to leader’s inability to delegate?
A. follower’s personality
B. leader’s personality
C. organizational policies
D. organizational culture

__________ are more likely to find it difficult to delegate task to their followers.
A. Experienced managers
B. Relationship-oriented leaders
C. Leaders who have trouble developing positive LMX
D. Type A leaders

In teams, members often share:
A. a culture.
B. norms.
C. history.
D. personal experiences.

Self-managed teams use leadership based on:
A. cooperation.
B. consideration.
C. shared responsibility
D. facilitation.

__________ is one of the key factors in effective teams.
A. Building trust
B. A good leader
C. Clear rules
D. A goal handed down from upper management

Robert wants to increase the trust among his team members. What should he do?
A. an exchange procesCreate friendly competition among the members.
B. Set up formal communication mechanisms.
C. Reward cooperation.
D. Assign a formal leader.

__________ is intended to teach team members to monitor, assess and correct their behavior in the team.
A. Self-guided correction
B. Cross training
C. Coordination training
D. Assertiveness training

Self-leadership is similar to which of the other theories of leadership?
A. Fiedler’s Contingency Model
B. The LMX model
C. The substitutes for leadership
D. Situational leadership

The use of teams in the U.S. was triggered by:
A. globalization.
B. the growth of the Chinese economy.
C. failure of the U.S. management methods.
D. the successful use of teams in Japan.

Instead of team-based management, Australian researchers have proposed the concept of __________ to involve individuals in teams in Western cultures.
A. collaborative individualism
B. self-leadership
C. participation
D. transformational leadership

Self-leaders __________ instead of __________.
A. keep information; sharing information.
B. make sure everyone is on board; letting employees develop their own goals.
C. provide a vision; letting the team set goals.
D. encourage creativity; conformity.

__________ targets developing leadership for the organization and frequently highly individualized in nature.
A. Executive development
B. Leader development
C. Leadership development
D. Supervisory and managerial development

__________ involves a a relatively permanent increase or change in behavior, knowledge, or skill that comes about because of some experience.
A. Education
B. Development
C. Learning
D. Training

__________ programs focus on self-awareness and understanding of strengths and weakness as well as getting in touch with personal values.
A. Basic knowledge
B. Personal growth
C. Skill development
D. Creativity

A willingness to learn requires both:
A. motivation and readiness
B. motivation and education
C. readiness and education
D. readiness and development

Whechien was recently hired as a floor manager of a local home garden center. During his first month as manager, he participated in 80 hours of orientation training to become familiar with the policies and procedures of the organization. Which element of the core of learning best represents this example?
A. willingness to learn
B. ability to learn
C. effective informal support
D. sufficient development experiences

If the culture values __________, then leader development should focus opportunities on all employees.
A. egalitarianism
B. high power distance
C. action-orienttion
D. high communication context

__________ refers to leader development programs that focus on information about content of leadership and fundamental concepts such as communication, feedback and contingent rewards.
A. Basic knowledge
B. Personal growth
C. Skill development
D. Creativity

__________ focuses on the application of knowledge which included topics such as planning, goal setting, and monitoring.
A. Basic knowledge
B. Personal growth
C. Skill development
D. Creativity

Because the United States has __________, it is appropriate to create leader development programs with a high degree of exposure to new and challenging situations.
A. tolerance for ambiguity
B. action-orientation
C. high communication context
D. low power distance

Cultures that value __________, can focus the content of leader development and training on practical matters and hands-on training.
A. action-orientation
B. high communication context
C. tolerance for ambiguity
D. high power distance

Coaching programs are most often used in:
A. executive development programs.
B. self-development programs.
C. supervisor training programs.
D. leader development programs.
Which personality trait is most likely related to one’s ability to seek and accept feedback?
A. external locus of control
B. openness to experience
C. emotional stablility
D. high macs

Self-awareness is a limited method for leader development because it only provides leaders with:
A. rich developmental experience.
B. individual awareness.
C. opportunity for practice.
D. support from the organization.

When using the __________ criteria for leader training, participants must be alerted to the need for change and specific areas they should address so that they are ready to change.
A. assessment
B. individual awareness
C. opportunity for practice
D. challenging experience

Which criteria for effective development relate to the culture of the organization?
A. fit and integration
B. assessment
C. opportunity for practice
D. feedback

Leader development programs that provide parallel learning environments and address different learning styles offer:
A. appropriate assessment and follow-up.
B. clearly stated objectives.
C. integrated assessment.
D. a combination of tools and methods.

__________ refers to the process of personal reflection and getting feedback from others.
A. Values clarification
B. Assessment
C. Double-loop learning
D. Learning
The only potential weakness for real experience in leader development criteria is __________, which can be easily built in through formal programs or use of existing organizational performance tools.
A. individual awareness
B. feedback on new learning
C. opportunity for practice
D. assessment

The primary difference in the methods often used for coaching and mentoring programs is that mentoring usually does not include:
A. assessment.
B. opportunity for practice.
C. support from the organization.
D. individual awareness.
__________ is an ongoing, long-term change or evolution that occurs because of various learning experiences.
A. Development
B. Training
C. Education
D. Curriculum
Marta has just been appointed to a top level executive position in her company. Which of the following leadership skills is she most likely to need and use?
A. technical
B. interpersonal
C. conceptual
D. organizational
Which of the Big Five personality dimensions is most strongly correlated to job performance?
A. concientiousness
B. emotional intelligence
C. openness to experience
D. agreeableness

__________ is the Big Five personality dimension that is important in jobs such as management that require social interaction.
A. Emotional intelligence
B. Extraversion
C. Openness to experience
D. Agreeableness

Locus of control is an indicator of:
A. how much control a person needs.
B. how much contril a person feels he/she has.
C. the control level of leaders.
D. control available in the situation.
Which of the following best describe Type As?
A. Type As are strategic thinkers who are proactive.
B. Type As try to do more in less time.
C. Type As are willing to cut corners to achieve their goals.
D. Type As are good at persuading others.

The leader’s power increases when employees:
A. are motivated.
B. comply with her decisions.
C. do not resist a decision.
D. are committed to her decisions.

Research about the effect of power distribution suggests that:
A. centralized power allows organizations to perform well.
B. concentrated power can be detrimental to performance.
C. leaders often give up their power willingly.
D. power sharing works well in most cultures.

Individuals with __________ power can influence others because they are liked and respected.
A. legitimate
B. referent
C. informational
D. reward

__________ is one of the influence tactics that rely on all sources of personal power.
A. Pressure
B. Personal appeal
C. Consultation
D. Rational persuasion

The concept of __________ suggests that teams gain power based on their ability to remove obstacles for others.
A. strategic contingencies
B. shared power
C. empowerment
D. coalition building

A team leader focuses on assuring that his team members have the latest expertise not available elsewhere in the organization. He is using which organizational source of power to assure that his team has power?
A. centrality
B. organicity
C. substitutability
D. coalition building

The key organizational factor in abuse of power is:
A. a decentralized structure.
B. the organizational culture.
C. the leadership succession plan.
D. the training and development plan.

The underlying theme of empowerment is:
A. delegating all power to employees.
B. sharing power with those who need it to perform their job.
C. setting goals that everyone can achieve easily.
D. centralizing decision making in the team.

Structure is best defined as:
A. the way human resources are organized.
B. the process by which inputs are transformed into outputs.
C. a common set of beliefs.
D. the internal factors that affect an organization.
__________ includes all of the outside forces that potentially affect the organization.
A. Environment
B. Structure
C. Technology
D. Strategy

Two general sets of factors moderate the power and discretion of executives. These include:
A. employees and other managers.
B. environmental factors and stakeholders.
C. external factors and organizational factors.
D. leadership factors and market issues.

Culturally endorsed leadership theories (CLTs) were proposed by:
A. GLOBE researchers.
B. Hofstede.
C. Trompenaars.
D. Hall.

A sense of crisis sets the stage for:
A. poor performance.
B. emergence of charismatic CEOs.
C. a decrease in CEO discretion.
D. stakeholders to exercise more power.

Which one of the strategic leaders tries to protect the organization from the impact of outside forces, encourages a fluid culture, and emphasizes efficiency?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

In successful companies, the well-established culture and procedures often:
A. reduce the impact of teams.
B. provide increased discretion to the leader.
C. increase the power of the leader.
D. act as substitutes for the CEO.

The _______, the less the power and discretion of the CEO.
A. less uncertainty in the environment
B. stronger the TMT
C. younger the organization
D. more cohesive the organization

How open a leader is to change and how willing he/she is to take risks is most important and relevant:
A. in small organizations.
B. during the formulation of strategy.
C. in times of crisis when high-risk decisions often pay off.
D. in certain environments.

Which one of the strategic leaders implements the latest high-technology innovations in his/her organization, builds a strong dominant culture, and hires managers who are similar to him/her?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager

According to the culturally endorsed leadership theories, which cultures most value leaders who are inspirational and provide a vision?
A. Middle Easterners and Southern Europeans
B. Latin Americans and Nordic Europeans
C. Eastern Asians and Africans
D. Southwestern Asians and Germans
Tolerance for diversity, extent of centralization, degree of employee participation, and organicity are all part of which characteristic of upper echelon leaders?
A. internal orientation
B. collectivism
C. need for control
D. risk-aversion

The common thread among many female executives is:
A. the fear of failure.
B. employee empowerment.
C. lack of international experience.
D. strong financial skills.

One argument in support of the high executive packages is that:
A. higher pay leads to higher performance.
B. the high salaries are needed to prevent CEOs from abusing their power.
C. CEO jobs are demanding and unstable.
D. U.S. CEOs are among the best in the world.

The public-good mission of nonprofits, along with voluntary participation of many contributors requires leaders to engage in a __________ style.
A. directive
B. collaborative
C. authoritative
D. task-oriented

How does Lafley regard power?
A. Power is not necessary for performance.
B. Power must be shared with all employees.
C. Building a power base starts with expertise and must be backed up with force if necessary.
D. Power is determined by influence rather than control.

How many strategic forces are in the domain of strategic leadership?
A. two
B. four
C. six
D. eight

Zhen does not like change much and empowers his employees to make their own decisions. Which strategic leadership type is he?
A. High-control innovator
B. Participative innovator
C. Status quo guardian
D. Process manager