Multiple Choice Answers

Researchers who have strong opinions about the subject of a study are likely to do a better job of conducting the research.

T or F

Both basic and applied research are systematic and objective, but only basic research utilizes the scientific method to answer to questions at hand.

T or F

When a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem, we would conduct applied research.

T or F

A Marketing research executive is performing an experiment to determine which of two client ads will draw consumers’ attention better. This is an example of:A. basic research.

B. general research

C. intuitive research.

D. applied research

Information can be evaluated using which of the following characteristics?

  1. timeliness
  2. repeatability
  3. quality
  4. All of the above.
  5. A & C above.
A hypothesis is a proven proposition that asserts the probable answers to research questions.

T or F

Which of the following statements concerning research design is true?
A. Research design provides a framework that guides data collection.
B. Ideal research design is determined by the research objectives.
C. Research design characteristics are indirectly determined by the information needs of the decision maker.
D. All of the statements are true.

 

If the research question were defined as “will buyers purchase more of a product in a blue colored or silver package?” the most appropriate type of research would be
A. exploratory
B. descriptive
C. causal
D. associative
E. none of the above
The right to privacy is absolute and cannot be waived by anyone under any circumstances.

T or F

When the results of exploratory research are extremely positive, they can take the place of a quantitative research study and save a great deal of money.

T or F

In a focus group, the moderator’s job is to prepare a standard set of questions to ask each group member.

T or F

The ideal focus group size is
A. less than 5 people.
B. 6-10 people.
C. approximately 25 people.
D. more than 100 people.
Which of the following is an advantage of a depth interview?
A. high degree of structure
B. valuable insights into motivation
C. need for a skilled interviewer
D. inexpensive
E. quickly and easily completed.
Which of the following is not a reason exploratory research is conducted?
A. prospecting for clients
B. screening alternatives
C. discovering new ideas
D. diagnosing a situation
E. All of the above are reasons exploratory research is conducted.
Secondary data are gathered and recorded by someone prior to (and for purposes other than) the current needs of researchers.

T or F

Two major drawbacks of secondary data are determining the accuracy of the data and finding data that fit the specifications of the project.

T or F

 

The American Petroleum Institute is an example of:
A. a commercial source of secondary data.
B. one company that produces the National CREST Report.
C. a trade association.
D. a government source of secondary data.
Which of the following is not a common problem with secondary data?
A. outdated information
B. variation in definition of terms
C. differing units of measurement
D. takes too long to collect
E. All of the above are common problems.
Concerning data distributed by media, researchers should be aware that
A. data are copyrighted and thus of limited use.
B. they generally refer to product flows through retail outlets.
C. data may cover only limited aspects of a topic.
D. government regulations severely limit some forms of data.
E. all of the above.
In a longitudinal study, various segments of the population are sampled so that relationships among variables may be investigated by cross-tabulation.

T or F

With a technically proper random probability sample, statistical errors can be eliminated.

T or F

High-cost, low standardization of questioning and limited geographic dispersion are disadvantages characteristic of ______ surveys.
A. telephone
B. personal interview
C. mail
D. none of the above.
The term mystery shopper is a form of scientifically contrived observations.

T or F

Observation allows all of the following except
A. the systematic recording of nonverbal behavior.
B. the amplification of the results from other forms of research by providing complementary evidence.
C. the gathering of evidence to explain purchase intentions.
D. the gathering and recording of what people do or what events take place during a purchase situation.

 

The term “halo bias” refers to
A. researchers’ tendency to choose people they respect to be respondents.
B. respondents’ tendency to respond favorably to personable researchers.
C. respondents’ tendency to remember only their favorite TV shows rather than all the shows they watch.
D. respondents’ tendency to remember only the TV shows they watched that they found spiritually uplifting.
E. Halo bias could refer to any of the above depending on the context of the observation study.
If an experimenter’s actions repeatedly influence subjects’ answers, these actions are referred to as repeated measures.

T or F

Decisions must be made about several basic elements of an experiment. One of these issues is
A. selection and measurement of the dependent variable.
B. manipulation of the extraneous variable(s).
C. control over the dependent variable.
D. selection of assignment of extraneous variables.
E. all of the above.
Blinding may be used to
A. control subjects’ knowledge of whether or not they were given a particular treatment.
B. control the unconscious influence of researchers.
C. control effects of extraneous variables.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.
A ranking task requires that the respondent estimate the magnitude of some characteristic of the stimuli.

T or F

The type of scale utilized in marketing research will determine the form of the statistical analysis.

T or F

Although reliability is necessary for validity, it is not in itself sufficient to make a measure valid.

T or F

A measurement task that requires respondents to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic or quality that a brand, store, or object possesses is known as
A. ranking
B. rating
C. sorting
D. a choice technique

 

The concept brand loyalty may be operationalized as
A. sequences of brands purchased.
B. number of different brands purchased.
C. amount of brand deliberation.
D. all of the above.
E. The concept cannot be operationalized.
The extent to which a measurement is free from random error is a measurement of
A. validity.
B. reliability.
C. predictive accuracy.
D. degrees of freedom.
E. systematic validation.
Pretesting involves administering a sample of a questionnaire to a group of respondents before having them fill out the complete questionnaire.

T or F

The order of questions in a survey is a potential source of bias.

T or F

Managers with experience in marketing research realize that constructing a questionnaire is a fairly simple task.

T or F

Which of the following is not an advantage of open-ended questions?
A. respondents free to answer whatever they want
B. discovering unanticipated responses
C. “warming up” respondents at the beginning of an interview
D. minimizing interviewer bias
E. All of the above are advantages.
Before a questionnaire can be constructed, the researcher must consider
A. the analytical techniques and data analysis to be used.
B. the communication medium of data collection.
C. the type of information needed.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.
Consider the following question: “If you own your own home, what is its approximate value?” a) $30,000 – 50,000; b) $50,000 – 70,000; c) $70,000 – 100,000; d) $100,000 – 140,000
Which of the following is not a valid criticism?
A. Categories are not mutually exclusive.
B. List of alternatives is not collectively exhaustive.
C. Two questions are being asked as one.
D. All are valid criticisms.

 

The following question: Should Macy’s continue its excellent gift wrapping program? Yes No
A. is a double-barreled question.
B. has a built-in assumption.
C. is a counterbiasing statement.
D. all of the above.
Using a random digit dialing sample of adults with telephones may result in a sampling frame error if the target group consists of registered voters.

T or F

There are two major alternative sampling plans: probability techniques and systematic techniques.

T or F

Random sampling error
A. is the difference between a survey that includes only those who responded and a survey that also includes those who failed to respond.
B. does not occur in non-probability samples.
C. results from the nature of a study’s design and the inappropriate or random administration of the sampling process.
D. is a function of sample size.
E. is a technical term that applies only to simple random sampling.
When a researcher limits a sample to a group of his or her personal friends in order to minimize non-response error, the sample is referred to as
A. an error-free sample.
B. a probability sample.
C. a personal sample.
D. a limited sample.
E. a non-probability sample.
If an airline randomly selects 20 of its flights and selects passengers in the odd-numbered seats to participate in a survey,
A. the passengers are the primary sampling unit.
B. the flights are the primary sampling unit.
C. the passengers are the tertiary sampling units.
D. the flights are the tertiary sampling units.
A hypothesis is a statement of fact about the nature of the world.

T or F

Tabulation refers to the orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format.

T or F

 

If you wanted to present a great deal of numerical information, you might decide to use a:
A. Pie chart.
B. Table.
C. Descriptive statistical array.
D. Line graph.
E. Bar chart.
A survey samples both man and women. The researcher wishing to analyze the data by separating the groups by sex will perform
A. an analysis of central tendency.
B. a simple tabulation analysis.
C. a gender analysis.
D. a cross-tabulation analysis.