Multiple Choice Answers

The interests of the poor and of social welfare recipients are defended by
corporate lobbies.
groups organized from among these people.
public interest lobbying groups funded by philanthropic organizations and wealthy individuals.
no one.
the courts.
Which of the following involves an interest group’s rank-and-file membership as well as outreach to ordinary people outside the organization?
Direct lobbying
Grassroots lobbying
Information campaigns
Coalition building
Shotgun marketing

In the 1830s, _____ became the device for nominating party candidates for the presidency.
state caucuses and conventions.
national conventions.
the direct primary.
the congressional caucus.
the initiative.

A story that contains no policy content which is not related to the day’s events but which commonly discusses popular personalities and is designed to draw greater viewer interest is
market-driven journalism.
the Fox effect.
attentive policy elitism.
biased media coverage.
infotainment.

Studies of the party identification and ideological orientation of voters show that
voters often align with parties that contradict their ideological leanings.
voters tend to identify with the party that most reflects their ideological orientation.
there appears to be no consistent relationship between party identification and ideology.
parties have no consistent ideological positions.
most voters do not have a solid party identification.

Someone who asserts that elections “socialize political activity” is contending that elections are mechanisms that maintainĀ freedom.
majoritarianism.
equality.
order.
independence.

Having a federal, rather than a national, election means that
people in different states get to choose between different presidential candidates.
only the votes of U.S. taxpayers count.
the electoral vote system gives weight to state results and not simply to the popular vote.
faithless electors have undue power.
the popular vote determines the eventual outcome.

In the 1970s, Congress passed lobbying reforms that required
full disclosure of all PAC contributions to candidates for national office.
all conversations between lobbyists and legislators to be made public.
candidates to cease raising money from interest groups.
interest groups to work through the two political parties.
lobbyists to disclose government contracts.

By itself, the consumer protection group “Common Cause” has been unsuccessful in changing product warning requirements on a toy they believe to be unsafe for small children. When a couple of other groups related to child endangerment education and children’s health assist Common Cause in gaining increased media attention to resolve the problem, the successful resolution of this issue is termed
public relations.
legal advocacy.
coalition building.
networking.
a cooperative partnership.

According to research,_____ tend(s) to be least important as voters decide how to cast their ballots.
candidates’ attributes
party identification
issues
funds raised and spent
None of these; these factors are equally important.

According to the most important qualification for being a lobbyist, the interest group to which you belong should choose which of the following applicants to hire the most successful candidate?
A lobbyist with a college degree in Political Science.
A lobbyist with an impressive resume of scientific or technological research in this area.
A lobbyist with a prior proven ability to raise a large amount of donations.
A lobbyist with prior experience in government operations in Washington D.C.
A lobbyist with proven marketing and personal skills.

The trend in ownership of mass media in the United States has been toward
ownership by smaller companies.
lower profits.
fewer large media outlets.
less concentration of ownership.
more concentration of ownership.

A bill passed the legislature permitting gay marriage in a state. If voters are asked to vote to approve or disapprove this measure, it is known as a(n)
initiative.
public forum.
populist measure.
petition.
referendum.

Any increase in lobbying regulations conflicts with
Tenth Amendment provisions.
the Equal Access clause of the Constitution.
the fairness doctrine.
Ninth Amendment provisions.
the right to petition the government found in the First Amendment.

In the United States today, the mass media
are manipulated by an elite for its own purposes.
channel information from the government to the people.
provide a two-way channel of communication between the people and the government.
channel information from the people to the government.
play favorites.

President Clinton’s 1998 State of the Union address, which took place right after the Lewinsky scandal broke,
helped Clinton change public opinion about his ability to continue carrying out his duties.
showed the limits of TV’s influence on public opinion.
was generally ignored by viewers and commentators.
demonstrated that allegations of sexual misconduct were distracting the Clinton administration from its duties.
completely avoided mention of the scandal

The Reform Party is an example of
a bolter party.
a party of ideological protest.
a single-issue party.
none of these.
all of these.

If the NRA focuses public attention on the failures of gun control legislation to reduce the number of felonies committed by using handguns, it is engaged in which function?
Coalition building
Program monitoring
Focus-issue orientation
Agenda building
Issue definition

From a strategic point of view, PACs are primarily interested in donating money to candidates who
share their ideology.
are incumbents with power over their area of interest.
have a consistent record of voting in their favor.
are underdogs in an election and thus will appreciate the money more.
their lobbyist identifies as being receptive to the group’s ideas.

You are a campaign consultant and your incumbent candidate has just been the recipient of an opponent’s attack ad. According to the strategies mentioned in the text, you should
have a reply posted on the candidate’s web site within no less than 48 hours.
not respond because challengers typically lose anyway.
respond in an open public forum.
respond with a negative counter-ad.