The early Republicans (who evolved into today’s Democrats) were led by
The interests of the poor and of social welfare recipients are defended by
groups organized from among these people.
public interest lobbying groups funded by philanthropic organizations and wealthy individuals.
The Republican Party was established in response to the issue of
When an interest group gives money to its lobbyist to support a particular political candidate, that money frequently comes from
money collected by the group from fees.
endowments from government grants.
publications and conferences.
The following person is more likely than others to engage in most forms of political activity
a person with low political efficacy.
a person highly prone to unconventional forms of participation.
a person highly prone to conventional forms of participation.
a person living in Washington, D.C.
a citizen with a strong identification with the National Rifle Association, its objectives and actions.
How much of the content of local TV news broadcasts in the United States can be described as political?
About 90 percent
About 50 percent
About 15 percent
Less than 5 percent
Approximately 60 percent.
In a majoritarian democracy, all citizens are equal in influence; in a pluralist democracy,
more influence adheres to those with the material and educational resources needed to organize.
the most influence is held by the group with the most numbers.
all citizens have equal influence.
disproportionate political influence is held by the economically oppressed.
the most influential are the members with the most instances of government hardships.
The efforts of candidates to be elected president can be categorized as
an exercise in majoritarian but not pluralist politics.
an exercise in pluralist but not majoritarian politics.
an exercise in both majoritarian and pluralist politics.
the personification of elite-dominated politics.
an exercise in self-identification and issue formation.
The number of lawyers in Washington, D.C. is increasing, because
it is easier to pass the bar examination in Washington.
more people are suing because of government regulations.
most lawyers want to live and work in Washington, where the real political action takes place.
the government needs to hire many lawyers to defend itself against lawsuits brought by citizens’ groups.
expanding interest group advocacy has created a demand for lawyer-lobbyists.
A bill passed the legislature permitting gay marriage in a state. If voters are asked to vote to approve or disapprove this measure, it is known as a(n)
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
The mass media are not important to the majoritarian model of democracy.
The mass media are not important to the pluralist model of democracy.
The media in the United States have greatly enhanced the government’s efforts to maintain order.
The media in the United States have played an important role in advancing equality.
The media represents an unofficial branch of government.
The purpose of the literacy tests that were used in the southern states after 1870 was to
keep schoolteachers employed.
keep illegal aliens from voting.
void illegally-cast ballots.
ensure that only well-informed people voted.
discourage African Americans from voting.
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr finished their election for President in 1800 so close in voting that the election was decided by the
Electoral College on a second ballot.
House of Representatives.
Presidential candidates are officially nominated by
the electoral college.
the party’s members in caucuses.
the voters in presidential primaries.
delegates at the party’s national convention.
notification from the Federal Election Commission.
Most interest groups in Washington D.C. are affiliated with a(n)
religious or ethnic organization.
public interest and consumer group.
corporation and business trade association.
economic and environmental issue.
In the United States today, the mass media
are manipulated by an elite for its own purposes.
channel information from the government to the people.
provide a two-way channel of communication between the people and the government.
channel information from the people to the government.
The first coast-to-coast television broadcast featured which of the following presidents?
John F. Kennedy
Which of the following people would vote most often?
A single white mother with two children and a high school education
A young married Hispanic couple, both employed full-time, with one child
A 30 year-old female lower-level executive with a two-year college degree
A college graduate who is currently unemployed
An African-American college graduate who has been a high-ranking company supervisor for 15 years
How does education affect voter turnout?
Well-educated people are more likely to vote than are their less-educated counterparts.
Educated people are less likely to vote than uneducated people are because their education makes them more cynical about government.
Educated and uneducated people vote at about the same rates.
Educated people vote more than uneducated people, who are often unable to pass voter literacy tests.
Educated people cast more split ballots on issues.
The magazine with the largest circulation is
U.S. News & World Report.
ESPN: The Magazine.
A candidate is wise to pursue a party-centered strategy when
his or her party lags in registered voters.
voters have little political information.
the candidate is known for his or her charm and telegenic nature.
specific issues have captured the attention of the electorate.
short of campaign donations.
By itself, the consumer protection group “Common Cause” has been unsuccessful in changing product warning requirements on a toy they believe to be unsafe for small children. When a couple of other groups related to child endangerment education and children’s health assist Common Cause in gaining increased media attention to resolve the problem, the successful resolution of this issue is termed
a cooperative partnership.
At times, initiatives may work to the advantage of politicians because
initiatives may free a politician from having to take sides on controversial issues.
many initiatives in recent years have attempted to impose term limits on politicians.
many initiatives in recent years have attempted to lengthen politicians’ terms of office.
initiatives direct voters’ attention away from politicians and toward issues.
courts will ultimately decide the issue.
Some critics of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 believe it will
lead to a proliferation of small newspapers and broadcast stations.
allow financially irresponsible people to gain control of media outlets.
allow a few giant corporations to control the media.
encourage the presentation of dangerous or unpopular views over the airwaves.
cause lower quality media coverage.
The “Era of Good Feelings” was characterized by
unprecedented cooperation between the two political parties.
a lack of party competition.
smooth relations between Congress and the president.
high public esteem for the two political parties.
good economic conditions.
One reason for the media’s impact as a socialization agent is
because the media carry clear messages about what behaviors and attitudes are and are not acceptable.
the fact that the average American child has watched about 19,000 hours of television by the end of high school.
the many ways that television socializes young people to question “the system.”
none of these.
all of these.
Which statement best characterizes the changes in campaigns since the 1960s?
Campaigns are shorter and more heavily influenced by the parties.
Campaigns are longer, fund raising is easier, and media scrutiny is less.
There have been no significant changes since the 1960s.
Campaigns are longer and more media focused, and fund raising is more complex.
campaigns are increasingly driven by political party insiders.
A basic assumption of most campaign managers and of the media that cover the candidates is that
the American people have a keen interest in politics and a thirst for detail.
the voter will not tolerate position changes on key issues.
voters will quickly spot and dismiss a shallow or misleading campaign theme.
the spoken and written word is a communication tool more powerful than visual images.
the American people have a low interest in politics and a short attention span.
The largest circulation for a daily paper is claimed by
the Wall Street Journal.
the Washington Post.
The New York Times.
the L.A. Times.
A study of presidential campaign coverage on television news has shown that instead of partisan bias in such coverage, there is actually bias against
candidates from wealthy families.
incumbents and front-runners.
Which event helped to shape the partisan patterns of the North and South for nearly a century?
The Revolutionary War
The Great Depression
The Civil War
The civil rights movement
Adoption of the new Constitution.
In the 1970s, Congress passed lobbying reforms that required
full disclosure of all PAC contributions to candidates for national office.
all conversations between lobbyists and legislators to be made public.
candidates to cease raising money from interest groups.
interest groups to work through the two political parties.
lobbyists to disclose government contracts.
When PAC expenditures are analyzed, PAC donations to a candidate most frequently come from
corporations, trade associations and other business groups.
labor unions’ required membership dues.
public interest groups.
citizen advocacy groups.
If you wish to find the largest concentration of reporters in the world, you should go to
If a lobbyist contacts you, you are more likely to
communicate with your member of Congress about an issue.
pay your dues to the organization.
vote in a presidential election.
march in the streets to protest a policy.
believe the lobbyist than a congressman.
Current FCC rules of ownership permit
national limits for radio ownership, especially within the same television market.
one company to reach up to 35 percent of the national market in households plus own several cable outlets.
ownership of three newspapers in markets of more than two locally-owned newspaper outlets.
one company to own two newspapers, three television stations and unlimited cable outlets in media markets of more than 500,000 viewers.
the same company to own a newspaper and television stations in media markets of more than three stations, potentially reaching 45 percent of U.S. households.
A group which has as its purpose issues unrelated to its members’ vocations is a(n)
public interest group.
According to a 1997 survey, a majority of Americans favored censoring the media to promote
A meeting of party supporters to choose delegates to attend a subsequent meeting at which party decisions are made is a
Which of the following defines or describes “contacting behavior” and other forms of particularized participation?
It tends to be used by those with the most political knowledge and resources.
It is consistent with democratic theory.
It may sacrifice majority interests to private interests.
It is described by all of these.
It is described by none of these responses.
Voting in the United States has decreased since 1952. Other forms of participation have
increased or remained stable.
not been extensively studied.
risen and fallen without any pattern.
Any increase in lobbying regulations conflicts with
Tenth Amendment provisions.
the Equal Access clause of the Constitution.
the fairness doctrine.
Ninth Amendment provisions.
the right to petition the government found in the First Amendment.
Which of the following is a conventional form of political participation?
Participating in a protest march
Chanting slogans outside officials’ windows
Staging a sit-in
Writing letters to public officials
Which of the following is an example of influencing behavior?
Reciting the Pledge of Allegiance
Volunteering to serve as an election judge in nonpartisan elections
Organizing holiday parades
Taking a case to court in order to change a law or policy
Court rulings regarding “freedom of the press” have tended to
restrict the right.
favor large owners.
rule against small owners.
decrease government restrictions.
cause more constitutional challenges.
The election of 1824 was the first to feature
selection of the president by the House of Representatives.
campaign contributions from political action committees.
selection of presidential electors by popular vote in most states.
widespread use of television campaigning.
selection of electors by state legislatures.
A minority, white, ethnic Jewish worker in the northern U.S. and a southern white catholic together made up the members of the
Which country was the first to provide for the general election of representatives through mass suffrage?
Which of the following stories is most likely to make the televised evening news?
A war between two foreign countries not allied with the United States
Efforts by a developing country to improve health care
A peaceful transition of government in another country
A murder in the city from which the broadcast originates
A successful community event
The media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who decide which events to report and how to report them are known as
To ensure stability, the objective of political institutions in democratic systems should be to
channel participation into conventional activities.
make conventional and unconventional modes of participation equally attractive.
expand the opportunities for unconventional participation and encourage its use when necessary.
make unconventional participation impossible.
adopt non-violent forms of unconventional activities.
Congress and the states moved quickly to pass the Twenty-Sixth Amendment, which lowered the voting age to eighteen, because they
recognized the justice of the student antiwar and civil rights movements.
knew that student voter turnout would be low.
expected the new voters to change the political balance of power drastically.
hoped to channel student energy away from demonstrations and toward more conventional forms of participation.
realized the unfairness of the military draft age with the voting age.
Where in the Constitution are parties discussed?
Article One: The Legislative Branch.
Article Two: The Executive Branch.
in the Preamble.
Throughout the Constitution.
Nowhere in the Constitution.
The number of electoral votes needed to win the presidency
changes from election to election.
is a majority of 648.
In interest group lobbying, coalitions are
formed only for the purpose of lobbying on a single issue.
all of these.
none of these.
How does incumbency affect a candidate’s chance for re-election?
Incumbents have a record to criticize and are therefore at a disadvantage in elections.
Incumbency is an advantage in running for Congress but a disadvantage in running for other offices.
Incumbency has no effect on the outcome of elections.
The incumbent candidate almost always has an advantage.
The amount of fundraising by an incumbent declines once a voting record is established.
A voter who determines whom they will vote for very early in the campaign likely based that decision upon
the perception of the front-runner by the media.
the candidate’s stand on a particular issue of importance.
the candidate’s foreign policy experience.
the candidate’s projected image.
If you were the administrator of a corporate PAC, you would be most likely to contribute campaign funds to
a candidate who is strongly committed to a free-market economy and is challenging an incumbent who chairs a congressional committee important to your business.
a candidate from the state in which your corporation is located.
the challenger of an open seat.
any candidate, whether challenger or incumbent, as long as he or she shares your ideology.
an incumbent who is a member of a committee considering legislation of interest to your corporation.
The first objective of campaign advertising is to
raise the social consciousness of voters.
give voters a detailed biography of a candidate.
ensure that a candidate has a high level of name recognition among voters.
get across to voters some basic issue stands.
define the challenger.
A primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot is a(n) _____ primary.
Broadcast media includes
radio and television.
Among the many campaign resources such as experience, knowledge of the issues, a candidate’s campaign staff, money and a candidate’s personal appeal, the most important is likely
Americans disapprove most of which activity?
Participating in a lawful demonstration
Boycotting goods – not 100% sure on this one – be sure to check your text as this is specific to text
Joining interest groups
Working in campaigns
By improving the quality of information transmitted to the people about their government, the mass media
at various times serve both the majoritarian and the pluralist models of American politics.
fit most comfortably into the pluralist model of American politics.
fit most comfortably into the majoritarian model of American politics.
tend to guarantee government responsiveness to popular demands.
raise expectations of voters.
Voters who cast ballots on referenda tend to be
not well informed about the referendum proposition.
much more likely to come from low socioeconomic groups than are voters for candidates.
better informed about the referendum issues than they are about candidates on the ballot.
well informed about the pros and cons of the proposition.
people who vote most.
The short-term impact of “motor voter” laws has been
to increase the number of independent voters.
to enhance Democratic registrations primarily.
to enhance Republican registrations primarily.
negligible—there has been no measurable effect on registration.
to increase voter registration, though actual turnout has not increased.
Studies of the party identification and ideological orientation of voters show that
voters often align with parties that contradict their ideological leanings.
voters tend to identify with the party that most reflects their ideological orientation.
there appears to be no consistent relationship between party identification and ideology.
parties have no consistent ideological positions.
most voters do not have a solid party identification.
Those who supported the new Constitution were called _____ and those who opposed it were called _____.
Among types of bureaucratic entities, the Federal Communications Commission is an example of a(n)
independent regulatory commission.
Direct mail membership drives by interest groups involve
pamphlets delivered by volunteer workers, bypassing the usual mail delivery system.
letters sent to people who have characteristics that make them likely members.
personal visits by interest group representatives to potential members.
mass mailings to all voters in a given district.
professionally hired consultants who mass target a general audience.
During a presidential election, the tendency of journalists to limit coverage of campaign events to coverage of whichever candidate leads in the polls at the time is known as
Which category best applies to the Socialist Party?
Party of ideological protest.
_____ believe that interest groups further democracy by broadening representation within the system.
Ralph Nader’s Green Party candidacy in the 2000 presidential election may have had all of the following effects except
causing George W. Bush to win the presidency.
electing a president that was less environmentally friendly.
causing Al Gore to win the popular vote.
causing Al Gore to lose the electoral votes of several states.
causing George W. Bush to win the electoral college by one vote.
The rise of television as a source of political information has
made Americans more trusting of their government.
served to confuse viewers about the truth in government.
decreased the average citizen’s concern for material goods.
greatly increased the average citizen’s knowledge of political issues.
contributed little to citizens’ knowledge of public affairs.
A government official “leaking” classified information about recent terrorist activities in a particular city so that government efforts to restrict personal freedoms become less obvious is leaking this information for what primary purpose?
To gain an advantage on congressional leadership to take credit for the legislation.
To avoid information authenticity requirements.
To detract from an official’s illegal mishandling of classified material.
Manipulation of the press.
To test public reaction to certain ideas and policies.
Direct action includes
a contribution to a campaign.
legislatures passing laws in response to public demands.
increased voter turnout due to negative campaigning.
a citizen’s group appearing before the city council seeking change in an ordinance.
an interest group soliciting members.
One feature of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 was its
attempts to tighten national control over media ownership and product content.
efforts to deregulate all privately-owned media.
encouragement of restrictions on web pages.
relaxation of rules on media ownership.
increase in government-owned media outlets.
Federal law limits the amount an organization may donate to a favorite presidential candidate to
$1,000 per election.
$2,500 per election.
$3,000 per election.
$5,000 per election.
The movement responsible for creating the largest occurrence of fundamental changes in the American political system is
Criticism of talk radio centers on its
tendency to cause people to become disinterested in politics.
airing of extreme views which tends to polarize politics.
lack of accurate reporting of events.
becoming too dependent upon personalities.
identical coverage of events as newspapers.
The Federalists, once a major party, had ceased to exist by
The phrase “on background” permits media to
override FCC rules for ownership.
engage in liberal, biased reporting methods.
correct an incorrectly-identified source.
issue a correction and apology for inaccurate reporting.
anonymously quote material.
The Children’s Defense Fund, the Community Nutrition Institute, and the Food Research and Action Committee
are citizen groups.
are business PACs.
have nothing in common.
are grassroots coalitions.
Since the 1950s, the level of party voting has
varied with funds raised.
The text defines _____ as the actions by which private citizens seek to influence or support government and politics.
Which of the following potential interest groups would likely be the most difficult to organize for political action?
Social welfare recipients
Certified public accountants
Alumni of a prestigious college
Employees of a manufacturing company
Retired social security recipients
The musicians Peter Gabriel, U2, and Tupac Shakur and the film Wag the Dog are all examples of
popular culture that has been censored by government action.
government-sponsored artists and projects.
the blending of entertainment with political content.
the rejection of politics in favor of pure entertainment.
political pop culture.
When polled, citizens indicate they believe the current democratic government is non-responsive to their demands. Under democratic theory, in order to reestablish popular control of government, citizens would need primarily to
join an interest group.
begin an initiative drive.
write their congressional representatives.
take matters to court.
vote in free elections.
A wide range of media outlets
have condemned the use of the Internet as a tool of propaganda.
have posted their wares on the Internet, and this allows people around the world to access them easily.
are used to getting news more often by citizens than any other media outlet.
charge a nominal subscription fee.
may contribute to majoritarian democracy
Most Americans now get most of their news from
Ralph Nader eagerly accepted the Green Party presidential nomination in 2000 because
he wanted to get 5 percent of the national vote, which would qualify the Green Party for federal funds.
he knew that the Green Party was organizationally strong and would provide sufficient backing for his presidential bid.
the Green Party is the fastest growing party in the United States.
Nader was a strong Bush supporter who wanted to advance Bush’s candidacy in a strategic way.
Al Gore’s record on the environment was not strong.
Efforts to regulate health care
may be unconstitutional.
often pit one segment of the health care industry against another.
have not been attempted in the United States, due to the strength of the health care lobby.
have proven highly successful but only on one issue at a time.
are all of these.
Interest groups maintain interest in their group and activities most successfully by using a(n)
frequent organizational meetings schedule.
membership benefits incentive.
An important idea of pluralist theory is that
most interest groups work for the good of the majority.
the institutions of government will ignore interest groups regardless of their orientation.
interest groups will ultimately fade from the political scene.
new interest groups naturally form when the need arises.
people join groups for benefits, regardless of current circumstances.
Today’s Republican Party was founded in
Most news printed about Congress comes from
congressional press releases and prepared reports.
independent investigations done by congressional reporters.
information provided by congressional staff and executive officials who regularly deal with Congress.
nightly news briefings from congressional party leaders.
In national elections, the Democratic party is typically at a disadvantage, when compared to Republicans, in
fielding experienced candidates.
having less diversity among its members.
having better state organizations and control.
In the 1830s, _____ became the device for nominating party candidates for the presidency.
state caucuses and conventions.
the direct primary.
the congressional caucus.
The Federal Election Commission is a regulatory agency whose purpose is to
enforce limits on campaign contributions and administer public funding of campaigns.
ensure that no racial discrimination occurs in the voting process.
monitor matching fund spending.
apply expenditure limitations.
enforce campaign violation fines.