Multiple Choice Answers

1. Which of the following is NOT a variable in the IPAT equation?
a. impact
b. technology
c. natural resources
d. affluence
e. population
2.What is the population of the world likely to be by the year 2050?
a. 5 billion
b. 7 billion
c. 9 billion
d. 11 billion
e. 13 billion
3.Which of the following statements is true regarding the world population growth rate since 1965?
a. It has been increasing at an alarming rate.
b. It has been decreasing at an alarming rate.
c. It has been decreasing slowly.
d. It has been increasing slowly.
e. It has stayed the same.
4.The IPAT equation is about which of the following?
a. earthquake prediction
b. global warming trends
c. inflation
d. environmental impact
e. slope stability
5.The number of people or animals that can be supported by a given area of land is called ____.
a. carrying capacity
b. growth rate
c. doubling time
d. population dynamics
e. critical mass
6.Which of the following is true of world population in the 20th century?
a. It doubled.
b. It tripled.
c. It quadrupled.
d. It quintupled.
e. It remained the same because of wars.
7. Which item listed below has helped to increase the carrying capacity of the Earth?
a. the development of nitrogen-based fertilizers
b. the development and application of chemical pesticides
c. the development and application of chemical herbicides
d. genetic modification of grains and other crops
e. all of the choices

8.____ are far more readily modified and overturned than ____.
a. Hypotheses; laws
b. Laws; hypotheses
c. Theories; hypotheses
d. Hypotheses; theories
e. Laws; theories
9.What are lines of equal elevation called on topographic maps?
a. isotherms
b. contours
c. geological contacts
d. lineations
e. grid lines
10.”In poorer countries, which part of the IPAT equation has the greatest impact?”
a. population
b. affluence
c. technology
d. pollution
e. energy
11.Which of the following is NOT a major Earth component?
a. atmosphere
b. biosphere
c. hydrosphere
d. lithosphere
e. stratosphere
12.Clouds ____ the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere due to reflection of solar radiation and ____ it due to greenhouse re-radiation.
a. raise; raise
b. raise; lower
c. lower; raise
d. lower; lower
e. Clouds have no impact on the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere.
13.What drives surface ocean currents?
a. the rotation of the Earth
b. the Earth’s magnetic field
c. wind
d. waves
e. storm activity
14.Who invented the first thermometer?
a. William Rankine
b. Daniel Fahrenheit
c. Anders Celsius
d. William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
e. Galileo Galilei
16.Which of the following best reflects the change in sea surface temperature of the past half-century?
a. A net warming of 1°C-2°C has occurred.
b. A net warming of 0.1°C-0.2°C has occurred.
c. There has been no change in sea surface temperature.
d. A net cooling of 0.1°C-0.2°C has occurred.
e. A net cooling of 1°C-2°C has occurred.
17.An atom having either a positive or negative electrical charge is called a(n):
a. molecule.
b. electron.
c. ion.
d. isotope.
e. none of the choices
18.Most of the mass of an atom is located in its:
a. protons.
b. electrons.
c. outer orbits.
d. nucleus.
e. ions.
19.Which property of minerals is variable and therefore the least reliable as a clue in identifying a mineral type?
a. color
b. cleavage
c. hardness
d. crystal form
e. chemical composition
22. “Reverse, normal, and strike-slip all refer to types of:”
a. earthquakes.
b. faults.
c. tectonic plates.
d. plays in football.
e. none of the choices
23.What is a common distinguishing characteristic of sedimentary rock masses?
a. They tend to be extremely hard.
b. They are always very colorful.
c. They are formed by solidification from a melt.
d. They tend to be layered.
e. all of the choices
23.At what type of plate boundary do compression and subduction take place?
a. divergent
b. convergent
c. emergent
d. passive
e. transform
24.What force is thought to be an important cause of plate tectonic motion?
a. Earth tides
b. earthquakes
c. thermal convection currents
d. shear strain
e. volcanic eruptions
25.Which of the following is a characteristic or feature of a convergent plate boundary?
a. compressive stress
b. subduction complex
c. volcanic arc
d. trench
e. all of the choices
26.Which statement below is true about oceanic crust in comparison to continental crust?
a. Oceanic crust is thinner and heavier (higher specific gravity).
b. Oceanic crust is thicker and heavier (higher specific gravity).
c. Oceanic crust is thinner and lighter (lower specific gravity).
d. Oceanic crust is thicker and lighter (lower specific gravity).
e. Oceanic crust is heavier and has about the same thickness.
27. Plutonic rocks are a type of:
a. volcanic rock.
b. metamorphic rock.
c. intrusive igneous rock.
d. extrusive igneous rock.
e. sedimentary rock.