Multiple Choice Answers

1) A woman who is unhappy in her marriage but is fearful of expressing those feelings to her husband is experiencing:
a. interrole conflict.
b. gender role conflict.
c. intrarole conflict.
d. gender role incongruent behavior.

2) Our personal view about how women and men should behave is called our:
a. gender role attitude.
b. gender bias.
c. sex desires.
d. gender orientation.

3) A feminist is:
a. a woman who believes woman are superior to men.
b. someone who believes gender differences are strictly biological.
c. someone who believes men and women should be treated equally.
d. a man who believes men are superior to women.

4) Minimalists are _________ while maximalists are_________?
a. People who believe that men and women are fundamentally the same; people who believe men and women are fundamentally different.
b. People who believe men and women are fundamentally different; people who believe that men and women are fundamentally the same.
c. People who believe that men and women are made to work together; people who believe that men and women are made to stay apart
d. People who believe that men and women are made to stay apart; people who believe that men and women are made to work together.

5) The American Psychological Association still allows writers of scientific research reports to use the generic “he” with the understanding that it refers to both men and women.
a. True
b. False

6) Which of the following is true if two variables have a negative correlation?
a. As one variable increases, the other decreases.
b. As one variable decreases, the other also decreases.
c. Both variables have a value of less than 0.
d. One variable is dynamic (changing) but the other is static (constant).

7) In a true experiment, one must be able to manipulate the independent variable to study its effects.
a. True
b. False

8) Researchers are often concerned with being able to generalize their results to the real world. That is, they are concerned with ___________ validity.
a. random
b. internal
c. independent
d. external

9) The strain that arises when we fail to live up to the gender role society has constructed for us is called:
a. Androgyny.
b. Cross-sex-typed.
c. Self-role discrepancy.
d. Sex-typed.

10) Which of the following best describes a transitional gender ideology?
a. Men’s sphere is work and women’s sphere is the home.
b. Power is distributed equally between men and women.
c. Ideally, men and women should respect each other based on individualistic information.
d. It is acceptable for women to devote energy to both work and family, but women should hold proportionally more responsibilities for the home and men should focus proportionally more energy on work.

11) In some cases men provide more help to women than they do to other men. What is this called?
a. feminist constructivism
b. passive hostility
c. benevolent discrimination
d. gender-role compensation

12) What is the backlash effect?
a. The fact that when people display counter-stereotypical behavior they may be penalized.
b. The retribution often experienced by cross-dressers when they look too much like the opposite gender.
c. The fact that men often attack women who perform well in traditionally male jobs.
d. The confusion experienced by people when someone they know goes back to older gender-stereotype behaviors after they have tried new behaviors for some time.

13) The negative attitude towards transgendered people is called:
a. Homophobia.
b. Backlash effect.
c. Hostile sexism.
d. Transphobia.

14) When we recall information that confirms our stereotypes and disregard information that disconfirms our stereotypes, this is called ______.
a. negative hypothesis testing
b. stereotype justification bias
c. self-fulfilling prophecy
d. confirmatory hypothesis testing

15) What is the file-drawer problem?
a. The notion that people ignore, or “file” their most troubling gender stereotypes.
b. The fact that studies that fail to detect significant differences are unlikely to get published.
c. The part of a meta-analysis where the researchers must thoroughly search the literature.
d. The common gender-role stereo type of women as low level office workers.

16) An early meta-analysis of helping behaviors confirmed that, overall, women are more helpful than men.
a. True
b. False

17) Which of the following is true, according to the research on sex differences in aggression?
a. Men are more likely to be victims of aggression than women.
b. Women are more likely to be victims of aggression than men.
c. There are no sex-differences regarding being the victim of aggression.
d. Girls are less likely to report being bullied at school than boys.

18) Which of the statement below, about sex hormones, is true?
a. Men have no estrogens in their bodies.
b. Sex hormones affect us physiologically, but they do not affect our brains.
c. Sex hormones do not affect our behaviors.
d. Women do have androgens in their bodies.